The mucket grows up to 15 cm (six inches), and is long and oval in shape. The shell is usually thick, heavy, and compressed. The front end is rounded and the rear end is bluntly pointed.
The outer shell layer (periostracum) is smooth. The color is yellow to yellow-brown with green rays. Older muckets tend to be more brown.
On the inner shell, the left valve has two tooth-like structures, which are heavy, large, and serrated. The inside surface (nacre) is white but occasionally it has a pink or salmon tint and is iridescent at the rear end.
The mucket is found in the Mississippi River drainage from New York through Wisconsin, and from Minnesota south through eastern Texas and Alabama. In the St. Lawrence drainage, it is found in tributaries from Lake Michigan to Lake Ontario.
In Michigan this species is found in rivers in the lower peninsula, as far north as the Muskegon, Cass, and Chippewa Rivers. Historically it was common on the Grand River and its drainages. The mucket was also fairly common in rivers of the Lake Erie drainage, including the Huron, Raisin, and Clinton Rivers. (Burch, 1975)
The mucket is usually found in medium to large rivers, usually in areas with fairly good flow. The substrates it prefers include sand and/or gravel. (Cummings and Mayer, 1992; van der Schalie, 1938; Watters, 1995)
Fertilized eggs are held in the water tubes for up to 11 months. The develop into larvae, called "glochidia", while inside the tubes. The glochidia are then released into the water where they must attach to the gill filaments or body surface of a host fish. After the glochidia attach, the fish's skin tissue grows over the glochidia. The glochidia then grows on the fish and transforms into a juvenile mucket within a few days or weeks. After it transforms, the young mucket falls of its host fish and falls to the bottom of the river. While on the river substrate, it develops into an adult.
Mussels in this family (Unionidae) reproduce with both sexes (a male and a female). Females release larvae rather than eggs (they are viviparous).
Reproduction is stimulated by increasing water temperatures. Males release sperm into the water. The sperm is taken up by females through the water current. Females have to take in water through their respiratory valve to breath and the sperm comes in with that water. The female's eggs are then fertilized inside of her and pass into her gills where they develop into "glochidia" (larvae).
In the Huron River, female muckets are pregnant from early August to mid-June. They release their glochidia into the water in the summer after they are fertilized.
Females hold fertilized eggs in water tubes until they develop into larvae (glochidia). After the female releases the glochidia there is no more parental help for the young.
The age of mussels can be determined by looking at annual rings on the shell. However, nobody has gathered data on muckets to know how long their average lifespan is.
Mussels generally stay in one place, although they may move when water levels or other conditions change. They may also swim up into the water column to spawn or release larvae (glochidia). This kind of movement is called vertical migration.
The middle lobe of the mantle edge has most of a mussels sensory organs. Paired statocysts are in the mussel's foot. The statocysts help the mussel figure out directions: which way is up, as well as north, south, east, and west. Mussels are sensitive to temperature. They also may have some form of chemical sensitivity so that they can recognize fish hosts.
Glochidia respond to touch, light, and some chemical cues. In general, when touched or when a fluid is introduced, they will respond by clamping shut.
Muckets are filter feeders. These mussels use small hair-like structures (cilia) to pump water into the incurrent siphon where food is caught in a mucous lining. Food particles are sorted and then directed to the mouth. Mussels eat mostly algae, but also take in bacteria, protozoans, and other organic particles.
The parasitic larval (glochidial) stage absorbs blood and nutrients from fish hosts after they attach to the skin or gills.
Mussels in general are preyed on by muskrats, raccoons, minks, otters, and some birds. Juvenile mussels are probably also fed on by fish, including freshwater drum, sheepshead, lake sturgeon, spotted suckers, redhorses, and pumpkinseed sunfish.
The glochidia stage of the mucket exists as a parasite on a fish. The glochidia can attach to almost any fish, but it will only transform to a juvenile if it attaches to a suitable host.
It is hard for scientists to tell exactly which fish are suitable hosts for muckets. They have to use both lab studies and collect samples from rivers. Based on these studies, scientists are confident that the following fish serve as suitable hosts for mucket larvae (glochidia): green sunfish, white crappie, smallmouth bass, largemouth bass, sauger, yellow perch and white bass. It's also possible that mucket larvae can parasitize banded killifish, central stonerollers, silverjaw minnows, black crappies, orange spotted sunfish, rock bass and Tippecanoe darters.
There are no significant negative impacts of mussels on humans.
Mussels are ecological indicators. Their presence in a water body usually indicates good water quality.
Muckets don't have any federal protection, but are listed as endangered in Kansas and threatened in Minnesota.
Renee Sherman Mulcrone (author).
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
an animal that mainly eats decomposed plants and/or animals
particles of organic material from dead and decomposing organisms. Detritus is the result of the activity of decomposers (organisms that decompose organic material).
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
union of egg and spermatozoan
a method of feeding where small food particles are filtered from the surrounding water by various mechanisms. Used mainly by aquatic invertebrates, especially plankton, but also by baleen whales.
mainly lives in water that is not salty.
animals that have little or no ability to regulate their body temperature, body temperatures fluctuate with the temperature of their environment, often referred to as 'cold-blooded'.
fertilization takes place within the female's body
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
small plants that float or drift in great numbers in fresh or salt water, especially at or near the surface. These serve as food for many larger organisms. (Compare to zooplankton.)
an animal that mainly eats plankton
breeding is confined to a particular season
remains in the same area
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
uses touch to communicate
movements of a hard surface that are produced by animals as signals to others
uses sight to communicate
reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female.
small animals that float or drift in great numbers in fresh or salt water, especially at or near the surface. These serve as food for many larger organisms. (Compare to phytoplankton.)
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Haag, W., M. Warren. 1997. Host fishes and reproductive biology of six freshwater mussel species from the Mobile Basin, USA. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 16: 576-585.
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