Shadow darners have pale gray-green faces with two antennae, and a strong jaw with teeth. They have 3 large, bright eyes in a triangle that are blue-gray to brown. Surrounding these simple eyes are their more complicated compound eyes, which are bigger and darker. They look different from other dragonflies because they don't have a black stripe across their face. The head is about 7.4 to 8.4 mm long, and they are about 6.5 to 7.8 cm in total. They have two big pairs of wings which are about 8.5 to 10 cm long. (Brooks, 2003; Dunkle, 2000; Johnson, 2011; Manolis, 2003; Montana Natural Heritage Program, 2011; Needham and Westfall, 1955; Novelo-Gutierrez and Tennessen, 2010; Paulson, 2009)
The bodies of shadow darners are strong in the front part of their body, called the thorax, and slender in the back part of their body, called the abdomen. They have have 6 legs and strong claws. Males have yellow-green stripes on the sides of their thorax and blue stripes on top. Their abdomen has pairs of blue spots. Females have the same coloring, but sometimes have green spots. They look a lot like paddle-tailed darners, but have pairs of spots on the bottom of their abdomen that paddle-tailed darners don't. (Brooks, 2003; Dunkle, 2000; Johnson, 2011; Manolis, 2003; Montana Natural Heritage Program, 2011; Needham and Westfall, 1955; Novelo-Gutierrez and Tennessen, 2010; Paulson, 2009)
Shadow darners live in all provinces and territories of Canada and in 42 states in the United States. The only states they don't live in are Utah, Arizona, Wyoming, Texas, Louisiana, Florida, Hawaii and Alaska. (Dunkle, 2000; Manolis, 2003; Needham and Westfall, 1955; Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, 2006; Paulson, 2009; Pelegrin, 2009)
There are 2 sub-species or shadow darners. Aeshna umbrosa umbrosa live in eastern North America, and Aeshna umbrosa occidentalis live in western North America. (Brooks, 2003; Dunkle, 2000; Johnson, 2011; Manolis, 2003; Montana Natural Heritage Program, 2011; Needham and Westfall, 1955; Novelo-Gutierrez and Tennessen, 2010; Paulson, 2009)
Shadow darners usually live around standing water or in streams with slow-moving water and shadowy places. They live in lakes, ponds, wetland meadows, marshes, and mountain lakes in forests. They are also occasionally found in clearings or along roads, especially when they are hunting. (Brooks, 2003; Dunkle, 2000; Manolis, 2003)
In cold climates, the eggs go dormant to survive and don't hatch until the spring. If the is water warm enough, the eggs take between 5 days and 2 months to hatch. The eggs hatch into an greenish-brown immature form called a naiad. They are very large, about 3.8 to 4.4 cm long. They are faded in color, have no wings, and live in the water. Before they turn into adults, they climb out of the water and start breathing air. They burst out of their shell by swallowing water. As adults, they can get up to 8.9 cm long. They often get eaten by predators after they first become adults, because their bodies are soft and they can't fly until their new wings harden. This normally happens at night, which helps them avoid predators. Adult dragonflies only live for a few weeks. (Brooks, 2003; Lung and Sommer, 2001; The Brown Family Environmental Center at Kenyon College, 2003)
Male shadow darners do not court females like many species of dragonflies. Females lay eggs in the territory of their mates. Meanwhile, the males guard them to make sure another male doesn't steal her away while she lays her eggs. (Brooks, 2003; Mead, 2003; The Brown Family Environmental Center at Kenyon College, 2003)
Adults are able to fertilize and lay eggs about 2 to 3 weeks after maturing from the larva stage. In harsh climates, this can take longer. They breed from late April through the end of November. This is such a short amount of time that mate as much as they can, about every 1 to 5 days. Females lay eggs in the late afternoon and early evening, usually into plants in the water or in wet, rotting wood. Females cut a hole in the plant with a blade attached their bodies. They lay around 500 eggs at a time, depending on the climate and how much sunlight is available. (Brooks, 2003; Coin, 2004; Corbet, 1999; Iowa Odonata survey, 2005; Lung and Sommer, 2001)
Males pick out a territory for the female to lay eggs where they will have a good chance of surviving. Males also guard the site from other males. Females protect the eggs inside their bodies until they lay them in a nest-like hole they cut in the stem of a plant. (Brooks, 2003; Mead, 2003)
In cold or harsh environments, shadow darners live up to 7 months inside the egg. In warmer places, they hatch after about 1 week. After they hatch, they become a kind of larva called a naiad. They spend most of the time they are alive as naiads. Shadow darners live about 2 weeks as adults. Sometimes they live longer as adults if they can't mate right after they become adults. The longest lifespan of any kind of dragonfly is 77 days. (Brooks, 2003)
Shadow darners are very active dragonflies. They can fly forwards, sideways and backwards because their wings beat separately from each other in figure eight patterns. In the day and in bad weather, they group together on tree trunks to rest. They can survive in a lot of different temperatures, especially really when it's really cold. When the weather is very hot, they dip themselves into the water to cool down. In cold weather, they bask in the sun on a rock or tree, or beat their wings to warm up. Naiads can swim and move themselves forward by spraying water out of the end of their bodies. Males defend their territories from other males. If an intruder arrives, they approach, threaten, fight, and then chase them. Shadow darners often hunt outside their territory. (Brooks, 2003; Lung and Sommer, 2001; Manolis, 2003)
Shadow darner territories are usually a shady area near still or slowly flowing water. The size of the territory depends how many males are in the area. If there are more males around, territories are smaller. (Brooks, 2003)
Shadow darners have large, compound eyes which they use to sense movement. They have more groups of light-sensitive cells than any other insect. They can see in color, and see kinds of light that humans can't, like ultraviolet and polarized light. They have 3 more simple eyes between the compound eyes, which they use to see the horizon and navigate while flying. Shadow darners find their mates by recognizing colors, sizes, or shapes. (Brooks, 2003; Frye and Olberg, 1995; Lung and Sommer, 2001)
Shadow darners also communicate by touch. Because their prey move quickly and are easy to see, shadow darners have short antennae. Females reject males they are not interested in by bending the back of their bodies down. Their larvae often communicate by touch because they live in water or swamps. (Brooks, 2003; Frye and Olberg, 1995; Lung and Sommer, 2001)
Shadow darners eat up to 20% of their body weight every day. They usually hunt at sunset and are most often active in the shade, but will hunt at any elevation and out in the open. They sometimes hunt in a big group with other shadow darners. Shadow darners make a basket with their legs which they use to catch their prey. They eat many kinds of smaller insects, like mosquitoes, midges, and other dragonflies. They avoid eating the wings of their prey, so they pull them off before starting to eat. Naiads eat mostly larvae of insects living in the water. They also eat freshwater shrimp, tadpoles and small fish. (Brooks, 2003; Dunkle, 2000; Kraus, 2010; Lung and Sommer, 2001; Manolis, 2003)
Adult shadow darners are good at avoiding predators because they can move quickly through the air while flying. Birds like American kestrels, Swainson's hawks, merlins, and purple martins are very good at catching dragonflies. These birds have excellent eyesight and can fly fast enough to catch shadow darners. Shadow darners are also sometimes eaten by large insects like robber flies. Females can be eaten by amphibians like frogs and newts while laying eggs. The immature naiads are camouflaged from predators because they are greenish-brown, but they can be eaten by birds when they come out from their larva skin. (Brooks, 2003; Platt and Harrison, 1995)
Shadow darners are predators and prey when they are larvae and adults. Female shadow darners lay their eggs inside the stems or leaves of plants to protect them from harsh weather. They get infected with parasites like mites, parasitic worms and protozoans. Parasites attach themselves to shadow darners as they come out of their larva skin. (Brooks, 2003)
Contrary to what many people believe, shadow darners are not venomous. Dragonflies do carry parasites, so humans could become infected if they ate infected dragonflies, but people in North America don't usually eat dragonflies. (Brooks, 2003)
Like other dragonflies, shadow darners limit the number of insects like mosquitoes that are pests for humans. Sometimes, shadow darner larvae are added to rice fields or water containers to control mosquitoes. Shadow darners also eat other pests and insects that carry disease, like locusts, moths, sandflies and wood-boring beetles. The number of shadow darners can also be a sign of problems with water cleanliness, so shadow darners can be an early warning about the health of an ecosystem. (Brooks, 2003)
Shadow darners are not threatened or endangered.
Dragonflies are often used as inspiration in folklore or haiku. They often considered symbols of grace, courage, luck or happiness, and associated with spirits or gods. In Asia, they are believed to be able to combat syphilis, asthma, fever, and other illnesses. (Brooks, 2003)
Heather Sanders (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Renee Mulcrone (editor), Special Projects, Catherine Kent (editor), Special Projects.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends.
a wetland area rich in accumulated plant material and with acidic soils surrounding a body of open water. Bogs have a flora dominated by sedges, heaths, and sphagnum.
an animal that mainly eats meat
an animal which directly causes disease in humans. For example, diseases caused by infection of filarial nematodes (elephantiasis and river blindness).
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
active at dawn and dusk
having markings, coloration, shapes, or other features that cause an animal to be camouflaged in its natural environment; being difficult to see or otherwise detect.
a period of time when growth or development is suspended in insects and other invertebrates, it can usually only be ended the appropriate environmental stimulus.
a substance used for the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
union of egg and spermatozoan
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
mainly lives in water that is not salty.
An animal that eats mainly insects or spiders.
fertilization takes place within the female's body
marshes are wetland areas often dominated by grasses and reeds.
A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
This terrestrial biome includes summits of high mountains, either without vegetation or covered by low, tundra-like vegetation.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
light waves that are oriented in particular direction. For example, light reflected off of water has waves vibrating horizontally. Some animals, such as bees, can detect which way light is polarized and use that information. People cannot, unless they use special equipment.
the kind of polygamy in which a female pairs with several males, each of which also pairs with several different females.
"many forms." A species is polymorphic if its individuals can be divided into two or more easily recognized groups, based on structure, color, or other similar characteristics. The term only applies when the distinct groups can be found in the same area; graded or clinal variation throughout the range of a species (e.g. a north-to-south decrease in size) is not polymorphism. Polymorphic characteristics may be inherited because the differences have a genetic basis, or they may be the result of environmental influences. We do not consider sexual differences (i.e. sexual dimorphism), seasonal changes (e.g. change in fur color), or age-related changes to be polymorphic. Polymorphism in a local population can be an adaptation to prevent density-dependent predation, where predators preferentially prey on the most common morph.
Referring to something living or located adjacent to a waterbody (usually, but not always, a river or stream).
breeding is confined to a particular season
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
a wetland area that may be permanently or intermittently covered in water, often dominated by woody vegetation.
uses touch to communicate
this biome is characterized by large expanses of coniferous forest, there is an extended cold season and heavy snowfall.
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
defends an area within the home range, occupied by a single animals or group of animals of the same species and held through overt defense, display, or advertisement
uses sight to communicate
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