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whip-poor-will

Caprimulgus vociferus

What do they look like?

Whip-poor-wills are medium-sized nightjars. They range from 22 to 26 cm in length and from 43.0 to 63.7 g in mass. They have a large, flattened head, large eyes, small bill with enormous gape, and rounded tail and wings. The bill and iris are dark brown while the legs and feet are also brownish. The feathers are grayish brown with darker streaks and broad black stripes on the crown. There is a white stripe across the lower throat. The wings are covered in grayish brown feathers with tawny and buff colored spots and speckles. Females are almost identical to males except that they have a thinner stripe on their throat and a more pale color with brown for the outermost tail feathers instead of white. Females are also slightly browner in general color.

Whip-poor-will hatchlings are completely downy with a yellowish brown color. Young males are similar to adult males, except the crown has black spotting instead of streaking. Young females are similar to young males, except their outer tail feathers don't contain white.

Whip-poor-wills can be distinguished from other members of the nighthawk and nightjar family by their white throat band, relatively small size, and brownish color. Whip-poor-wills can be distinguished from Chuck-will's-widows by their smaller size, less reddish color, and smaller white markings on the tails of males.

  • Sexual Dimorphism
  • sexes alike
  • Range mass
    43 to 63.7 g
    1.52 to 2.24 oz
  • Range length
    22 to 26 cm
    8.66 to 10.24 in
  • Average length
    25 cm
    9.84 in

Where do they live?

Whip-poor-wills are found in North America during the warm months of the year, reaching from central and southeast Canada to parts of southern Mexico. They are not found in the western United States except for small populations in Arizona, Texas, and New Mexico. Whip-poor-wills are also found in Mexico and Central America during migration and winter.

What kind of habitat do they need?

Whip-poor-wills are usually found in dry deciduous or mixed woodlands and some pine-oak woodlands. They prefer to live in young second growth forests, especially dry woods near fields and other open areas. The amount of openness in the forest seems to be more important than the type of trees that make up the forest. Shade and small amounts of ground cover are also important in whip-poor-will habitat. During migration they are also found in forested habitats. They are usually found in lowlands but can be found from sea level to 3,600 meters elevation.

  • Range elevation
    0 to 3600 m
    0.00 to 11811.02 ft

How do they reproduce?

Whip-poor-wills are thought to be monogamous. There is little known about whip-poor-will courtship displays. Females may try to get the attention of males by strutting on the ground with a lowered head, outspread wings and tail, and while making a guttural chuckle. Males respond by approaching the female, circling her, and moving their bodies up and down. If the female flies away, the male may not follow. The male may also try to approach the female by using a tail-flashing display.

Whip-poor-wills breed twice per year, from May through June, usually laying 2 eggs per clutch. They lay eggs on the ground usually beneath trees, bushes, or fallen trees branches near open areas. Most nests are depressions in leaves, pine needles, or bare ground. Eggs hatch after about 19 days. Time to fledging is about 17 days. Little is known about when whip-poor-wills have reproduce, but it is thought to be 1 year of age, the average for the nighthawk and nightjar family. Whip-poor-will reproductive cycles are synchronized with moon cycles, resulting in better moonlit nights when foraging to feed their young.

  • How often does reproduction occur?
    Whip-poor-wills breed twice per year.
  • Breeding season
    Whip-poor-wills breed from May through June.
  • Average eggs per season
    4
  • Average eggs per season
    2
    AnAge
  • Range time to hatching
    17 to 20 days
  • Average time to hatching
    19 days
  • Range fledging age
    14 to 20 days
  • Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
    1 years
  • Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
    1 years

Both male and female whip-poor-will adults incubate the eggs, starting with the laying of the first egg. Both parents feed their young, beginning right after hatching. While one parent is finding food, the other is protecting the nest. Whenever the returning adult comes back to the nest, it regurgitates insects to both young. Young whip-poor-wills have been known to accept food from parents at 30 days of age. Whip-poor-will hatchlings are able to avoid predators without parental care from a fairly early age.

  • Parental Investment
  • precocial
  • pre-fertilization
    • provisioning
    • protecting
      • female
  • pre-hatching/birth
    • provisioning
      • female
    • protecting
      • male
      • female
  • pre-weaning/fledging
    • provisioning
      • male
      • female
    • protecting
      • male
      • female
  • pre-independence
    • provisioning
      • male
      • female
    • protecting
      • male
      • female

How long do they live?

Little information is known about the lifespan of whip-poor-wills. Tagged wild whip-poor-wills have been known to live up to 15 years. Most causes of mortality occur when birds are very young or as eggs. There is some competition with related species, such as Chuck-will's-widows that might reduce their lifespan.

How do they behave?

Whip-poor-wills fly slowly and noiselessly. They usually glide and can take off nearly vertically. They waddle when they walk and can make short hops. They are nocturnal animals that move very little at dusk or dawn. They typically roost in tree branches close to the ground. Whip-poor-wills are generally solitary but may form small flocks during migration. (Cink, 2002)

Whip-poor-wills migrate to the southern tip of Florida, Mexico, and Central America in early September and October. They return to breeding sites from late March through May.

  • Range territory size
    18000 to 111000 m^2
  • Average territory size
    51000 m^2

Home Range

Little is known about the home range but some have been known to have territory sizes up to 111,000 square meters. (Cink, 2002)

How do they communicate with each other?

Whip-poor-wills are known for their three tone calls, sounding like "whip-poor-will", for which they are named. This call is usually given by males to establish territories. The "quirt" is a soft call that communicates excitement or stress, it is usually used by wintering, territorial birds. A "growl" is a fluttering sound used when two territorial individuals meet. The "hiss" is a repeated loud call used when predators are near. The "cur" is a guttural chuckle, often given during courtship or at other times by nesting birds.

What do they eat?

Whip-poor-wills fly at night to catch their prey, they mostly eat night flying insects, but also eat insects that don't fly. They are known to eat moths, mosquitoes, flying beetles, ants, grasshoppers, and crickets, but moths make up most of their diet.

  • Animal Foods
  • insects

What eats them and how do they avoid being eaten?

Losses from predation are mostly of eggs and young birds because ground nests are extremely vulnerable. Predators such as skunks, raccoons, coyotes, red foxes and snakes prey on the eggs and young. To protect their young, adult whip-poor-wills fake an injury by flopping on the ground near the nest and in full view of the predator, called the "Broken Wing" display. This is performed until the predator is not in view of the eggs or young and the adult then displays on a perch above the ground. Whip-poor-wills are patterned in brown, helping them to blend in with their forest floor surroundings. They are also nocturnal, both of these help to protect them from predation.

  • These animal colors help protect them
  • cryptic

What roles do they have in the ecosystem?

Whip-poor-wills help to control populations of insects that they prey on. They also compete with other nightjars and nighthawks for habitat and food resources. (Cink, 2002)

Do they cause problems?

There are no known adverse effects of whip-poor-wills on humans.

How do they interact with us?

Whip-poor-wills are insect eaters, usually living near open, agricultural areas. It is likely that they help control insect populations that affect humans. Because whip-poor-wills nocturnal and difficult to observe, they have no other known interactions with humans.

  • Ways that people benefit from these animals:
  • controls pest population

Are they endangered?

Whip-poor-wills have a large global population, estimated at 2,100,000 individuals. Although the population seems to be declining, it is not expected to reach the threshold for population decline that would put it on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. This species has an IUCN Red List status of least concern. (Ekstrom and Butchart, 2004; Ekstrom and Butchart, 2004)

Some more information...

The species name, vociferus, is Latin for "voice-carrying" or "noisy." ("Goatsuckers Whip-poor-will, Caprimulgus vociferus", 2000)

Contributors

Tanya Dewey (editor), Animal Diversity Web.

Robert Duszynski (author), Kalamazoo College, Ann Fraser (editor, instructor), Kalamazoo College.

Glossary

Nearctic

living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.

World Map

acoustic

uses sound to communicate

agricultural

living in landscapes dominated by human agriculture.

bilateral symmetry

having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends.

carnivore

an animal that mainly eats meat

chemical

uses smells or other chemicals to communicate

cryptic

having markings, coloration, shapes, or other features that cause an animal to be camouflaged in its natural environment; being difficult to see or otherwise detect.

endothermic

animals that generate their own body heat through metabolic processes.

forest

forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.

insectivore

An animal that eats mainly insects or spiders.

iteroparous

offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).

migratory

makes seasonal movements between breeding and wintering grounds

monogamous

Having one mate at a time.

motile

having the capacity to move from one place to another.

native range

the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.

nocturnal

active during the night

oviparous

reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.

scrub forest

scrub forests develop in areas that experience dry seasons.

seasonal breeding

breeding is confined to a particular season

sexual

reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female

solitary

lives alone

tactile

uses touch to communicate

temperate

that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).

terrestrial

Living on the ground.

territorial

defends an area within the home range, occupied by a single animals or group of animals of the same species and held through overt defense, display, or advertisement

tropical

the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.

vibrations

movements of a hard surface that are produced by animals as signals to others

visual

uses sight to communicate

young precocial

young are relatively well-developed when born

References

2000. "Goatsuckers Whip-poor-will, Caprimulgus vociferus" (On-line). Georgia Wildlife Web. Accessed October 11, 2006 at http://museum.nhm.uga.edu/gawildlife/birds/caprimulgiformes/cvociferus.html.

2001. Nighthawks and Nightjars. Pp. 348-351 in C Elphick, J Dunning, D Sibley, eds. The Sibley Guide to Bird Life and Behavior. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.

Cink, C. 2002. Whip-poor-will (Caprimulgus vociferus). Pp. 1-20 in A Poole, F Gill, eds. The Birds of North America, Vol. 16 No. 620. Philadelphia, PA: The Birds of North America, Inc.

Ehrlich, P., D. Dobkin, D. Wheye. 1988. The Birder's Handbook. New York: Simon and Schuster Inc.

Ekstrom, J., S. Butchart. 2004. "The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species" (On-line). Accessed November 05, 2006 at http://www.iucnredlist.org/search/details.php/48656/summ.

Peck, G., R. James. 1983. Breeding Birds of Ontario Nidiology and Distribution Volume 1: Nonpasserines. Toronto, Canada: The Royal Ontario Museum.

 
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Duszynski, R. 2006. "Caprimulgus vociferus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 24, 2014 at http://www.biokids.umich.edu/accounts/Caprimulgus_vociferus/

BioKIDS is sponsored in part by the Interagency Education Research Initiative. It is a partnership of the University of Michigan School of Education, University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, and the Detroit Public Schools. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant DRL-0628151.
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