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Kirtland's snake

Clonophis kirtlandii

What do they look like?

Kirtland's Snakes can grow to 36 to 62 cm in length. They have keeled scales (scales with a raised ridge along their length) on the upper body that are grayish in color, with two rows of small dark blotches and a row of larger dark blotches along the midline of the snake. These blotches can be faded and difficult to see in both young and older individuals. This coloration on their backs makes them difficult to see. The belly is reddish with a row of black spots on each side. The head is dark with a white chin and throat. Males tend to be somewhat shorter than females. Newborn Kirtland's Snakes are from 11 to 17 cm long and are darker than adults, with a deep red belly.

  • Sexual Dimorphism
  • female larger
  • Range length
    36.0 to 62.0 cm
    14.17 to 24.41 in

Where do they live?

Kirtland's Snakes can be found in southeastern Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and north central Kentucky.

What kind of habitat do they need?

These snakes prefer open damp areas like marsh edges, wet prairies, fens, and pastures. They are not aquatic but are usually found in the vicinity of streams, marshes, or ponds. Kirtland's Snakes are also sometimes found in suburban areas and abandoned urban lots.

How long do they live?

Little is known about lifespan of Kirtland's Snakes in the wild. They are shy and secretive and have become rare in many areas. They are coveted as pets by snake enthusiasts but rarely live longer than a year in captivity. They almost certainly live for 5 years or more in the wild, once they have survived their first year.

  • Average lifespan
    Status: captivity
    1.0 years
  • Average lifespan
    Status: captivity
    8.4 years

How do they behave?

Kirtland's Snakes are very secretive and spend most of their time underground or otherwise under cover. They are well-adapted to their burrowing lifestyles, being able to flatten their bodies to near the thickness of a ribbon. Kirtland's Snakes are most active from late March to early November. They use burrows as hibernation sites in the winter. Kirtland's Snakes appear to be mainly active at night and are relatively solitary, though they may cluster in areas of good habitat and prey density and during hibernation in suitable sites.

How do they communicate with each other?

Little is known about communication among Kirtland's Snakes. Like most snakes, Kirtland's Snakes rely heavily on their sense of smell. They use their forked tongues to collect chemicals from the air and insert these forks into a special organ in the roof of their mouth, which interprets these chemical signals. Snakes are also sensitive to vibrations and have reasonably good vision.

What do they eat?

The diet of Kirtland's snakes consists mainly of earthworms and slugs. They may also eat terrestrial leeches.

  • Primary Diet
  • carnivore
    • eats non-insect arthropods

What eats them and how do they avoid being eaten?

Kirtland's snakes spend much of their time under cover so are less vulnerable to predation than many other kinds of snakes Squamata. They are most vulnerable to burrowing predators such as milk snakes, shrews, and weasels. They may be preyed on by hawks, owls, foxes, raccoons, weasels, skunks, and cats when they are aboveground. When they are threatened by a predator, Kirtland's snakes flatten their body and remain stiff. If touched they will writhe violently and attempt to dart into cover. They may even try to strike and bite, but they are relatively small and harmless.

What roles do they have in the ecosystem?

Kirtland's Snakes control populations of their prey, earthworm, leeches, and slugs. They also act as prey items for larger snakes and other medium-sized predators.

How do they interact with us?

Kirtland's Snakes will help to control populations of slugs in areas where they are abundant.

  • Ways that people benefit from these animals:
  • controls pest population

Are they endangered?

Kirtland's Snakes are considered rare throughout their range. In Michigan they are considered endangered and in Indiana they are considered threatened. Because Kirtland's Snakes are sometimes found around big cities they encounter development and pollution, and populations are continually being lost this way. Kirtland's Snakes occupied the wet prairie regions of the Midwest, which have been virtually eliminated throughout this region, so they have lost almost all of their native habitat.



living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.

World Map

bilateral symmetry

having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends.


an animal that mainly eats meat

female parental care

parental care is carried out by females


union of egg and spermatozoan

internal fertilization

fertilization takes place within the female's body


offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).


marshes are wetland areas often dominated by grasses and reeds.


having the capacity to move from one place to another.

native range

the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.


active during the night


reproduction in which eggs develop within the maternal body without additional nourishment from the parent and hatch within the parent or immediately after laying.

seasonal breeding

breeding is confined to a particular season


reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female


lives alone


a wetland area that may be permanently or intermittently covered in water, often dominated by woody vegetation.


that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).


Living on the ground.

young precocial

young are relatively well-developed when born

University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyNational Science Foundation

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. "Clonophis kirtlandii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 25, 2014 at

BioKIDS is sponsored in part by the Interagency Education Research Initiative. It is a partnership of the University of Michigan School of Education, University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, and the Detroit Public Schools. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant DRL-0628151.
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