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Common whitefish

Coregonus clupeaformis

What do they look like?

Lake whitefish average 457 mm in length. They are covered in scales that range from pea green or almost brown on their backs to silvery white on their stomachs. The sides have a bluish hue and the fins are nearly transparent. There are two dorsal fins, including an adipose (fatty) fin which is sometimes larger in males. The nose is blunt, with a small mouth. Lake whitefish have long, streamlined bodies, as do most members of the salmon family.

  • Sexual Dimorphism
  • sexes shaped differently
  • Range mass
    19 (high) kg
    41.85 (high) lb
  • Average mass
    1.8 kg
    3.96 lb
  • Range length
    1000 (high) mm
    39.37 (high) in
  • Average length
    457 mm
    17.99 in

Where do they live?

Lake whitefish are found throughout northern North America. They are found in cold waters from the Great Lakes north through almost all of Canada and into Alaska. (Becker, 1983; Luna, 2008)

What kind of habitat do they need?

Lake whitefish are found mainly in large, cold, freshwater lakes and their tributaries. They make small, seasonal migrations between different water depths. They are found in deeper water in summer and winter, returning to shallower water in spring and again in fall or early winter to spawn over rocky shoals and reefs along lakeshores. They can be found at water depths from 5 to 110 meters or deeper, although ranges of 15 to 37 meters are more typical.

  • Aquatic Biomes
  • lakes and ponds
  • rivers and streams
  • Range depth
    5 to 110 m
    16.40 to 360.89 ft

How do they grow?

Lake whitefish spawn in shallow water. Spawning occurs in fall and early winter and the eggs are broadcast over the shoals, where they settle to the bottom. Eggs hatch in March or early April, taking about 133 days to hatch in waters averaging 1.7 degrees Celsius.

How do they reproduce?

Lake whitefish spawn in large groups over shallow water shoals in fall and early winter. Females repeatedly rise to the water's surface while releasing eggs. They are accompanied by either one or two males who fertilize the eggs.

Lake whitefish spawn in the fall or early winter and eggs hatch in the early spring. Females release thousands of eggs when they spawn, with larger females having more eggs. One female that weighed 907 g had 25,000 eggs and another female that weighed 5.9 kg had 130,000 eggs.

  • How often does reproduction occur?
    Lake whitefish breed once yearly.
  • Breeding season
    Spawning occurs in fall or early winter.
  • Average time to hatching
    133 days

Lake whitefish males and females do not care for their young after the eggs have been fertilized.

  • Parental Investment
  • no parental involvement
  • pre-fertilization
    • provisioning
    • protecting
      • female

How long do they live?

Most mortality of lake whitefish occurs at the egg and larval stages. Only about 13% of eggs survive to become larvae and larvae are heavily preyed on by larger fish. The maximum recorded age of a lake whitefish was 50 years old, although maximum ages of 25 years are more typical. (Becker, 1983; Luna, 2008)

  • Range lifespan
    Status: wild
    50 (high) years
  • Typical lifespan
    Status: wild
    25 (high) years

How do they behave?

Lake whitefish are fairly sedentary in the Great Lakes, although they make seasonal movements between deep and shallow water. They typically make 4 short, seasonal migrations: from deep to shallow water in the spring, back to deep water in summer as water temperatures rise, to spawning areas in shallow water in the fall and early winter, and back to deep water in the winter. Lake whitefish are social and are always found in schools. (Luna, 2008; Michigan Department of Natural Resources, 2008)

Home Range

Total distances traveled during migrations have been recorded at 8 to 242 km, but the vast majority of fish do not travel more than 40 km. Schools of lake whitefish seem to remain fairly local in their movements. (Becker, 1983)

How do they communicate with each other?

Like most fish, lake whitefish have a lateral line system that allows them to detect water movement. They also have good vision and sense of smell. In mating, tactile cues may be important as males and females coordinate to release eggs and sperm.

What do they eat?

Lake whitefish have small mouths and eat mainly small prey, including aquatic insects (fly larvae caddisfly larvae, midge larvae, mayfly nymphs, and water boatmen), amphipods, snails and clams, and fish eggs and fry. They have been recorded eating small alewives and sculpin. They forage mainly on or near the lake bottom.

  • Animal Foods
  • fish
  • eggs
  • insects
  • mollusks
  • aquatic crustaceans

What eats them and how do they avoid being eaten?

Lake whitefish eggs are eaten by a host of other fish, including yellow perch, ciscoes, and other whitefish. Juvenile lake whitefish are also eaten by a host of larger, predatory fish, including lake trout, northern pike, burbot, and walleye. Adult lake whitefish are largely preyed on by humans. (Michigan Department of Natural Resources, 2008)

  • These animal colors help protect them
  • cryptic

What roles do they have in the ecosystem?

Lake whitefish are both important prey, as eggs and young, for many other fish species, and important predators of aquatic insects, mollusks, and crustaceans. Lake whitefish are parasitized by introduced sea lampreys. (Michigan Department of Natural Resources, 2008)

Do they cause problems?

There are no adverse effects of lake whitefish on humans.

How do they interact with us?

Lake whitefish have long formed the basis for important subsistence and commercial fisheries. They are not commonly sought as gamefish, although more anglers are beginning to seek them out. They are difficult to catch with hooks because of the deep water they sometimes inhabit and small mouths. Lake whitefish flesh is considered delicate and delicious and the roe is valued for caviar. (Luna, 2008; Michigan Department of Natural Resources, 2008)

  • Ways that people benefit from these animals:
  • food

Are they endangered?

Overfishing and environmental degradation caused a near collapse of lake whitefish fisheries in the Great Lakes during the early part of the 20th century. Water quality improvement and fishery management has improved populations since then, although local populations remain threatened and the health of lake whitefish stocks has not fully recovered under continuing commercial fishing pressure. (Becker, 1983; Michigan Department of Natural Resources, 2008)

Some more information...

Contributors

Tanya Dewey (author), Animal Diversity Web.

Glossary

Nearctic

living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.

World Map

bilateral symmetry

having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends.

carnivore

an animal that mainly eats meat

chemical

uses smells or other chemicals to communicate

cryptic

having markings, coloration, shapes, or other features that cause an animal to be camouflaged in its natural environment; being difficult to see or otherwise detect.

diurnal
  1. active during the day, 2. lasting for one day.
ectothermic

animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature

fertilization

union of egg and spermatozoan

food

A substance that provides both nutrients and energy to a living thing.

freshwater

mainly lives in water that is not salty.

heterothermic

animals that have little or no ability to regulate their body temperature, body temperatures fluctuate with the temperature of their environment, often referred to as 'cold-blooded'.

insectivore

An animal that eats mainly insects or spiders.

iteroparous

offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).

molluscivore

eats mollusks, members of Phylum Mollusca

motile

having the capacity to move from one place to another.

natatorial

specialized for swimming

native range

the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.

nocturnal

active during the night

oviparous

reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.

polygynandrous

the kind of polygamy in which a female pairs with several males, each of which also pairs with several different females.

seasonal breeding

breeding is confined to a particular season

sedentary

remains in the same area

sexual

reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female

social

associates with others of its species; forms social groups.

tactile

uses touch to communicate

temperate

that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).

vibrations

movements of a hard surface that are produced by animals as signals to others

visual

uses sight to communicate

References

Becker, G. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. Madison, Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press.

Luna, S. 2008. "Coregonus clupeaformis" (On-line). fishbase.org. Accessed December 11, 2008 at http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/SpeciesSummary.php?id=234.

Michigan Department of Natural Resources, 2008. "Lake Whitefish, Coregonus clupeaformis" (On-line). Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Fish Identification. Accessed December 11, 2008 at ttp://www.michigan.gov/dnr/0,1607,7-153-10364_18958-45680--,00.html.

 
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Dewey, T. 2008. "Coregonus clupeaformis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 23, 2014 at http://www.biokids.umich.edu/accounts/Coregonus_clupeaformis/

BioKIDS is sponsored in part by the Interagency Education Research Initiative. It is a partnership of the University of Michigan School of Education, University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, and the Detroit Public Schools. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant DRL-0628151.
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