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largemouth bass

Micropterus salmoides

What do they look like?

Micropterus salmoides has a large mouth, a notch between the two dorsal fins, and a dark stripe along the side of the body (Bailey et al., 2004). This black band is seemingly made up of small oval shapes to a closer eye. Coloration is variable, but is usually a darkish green on the back and sides, fading to an off-white on the belly. The anterior dorsal fin has nine to eleven spines while the posterior dorsal fin has twelve to fourteen rays (Boschung et al., 2004). The average weight of M. salmoides is one kilogram; however, certain individuals have reached weights of over ten kilograms. Males usually do not surpass 40 cm, while females can reach up to 56 cm in length. (Bailey, et al., 2004; Boschung, et al., 2004)

  • Sexual Dimorphism
  • female larger
  • Range mass
    10 (high) kg
    22.03 (high) lb
  • Average mass
    .9 kg
    1.98 lb
  • Range length
    56 (high) cm
    22.05 (high) in

Where do they live?

Micropterus salmoides is native to eastern North America and historically ranged from southern Canada to northern Mexico, and from the Atlantic coast to the central region of the United States. Since the beginning of the twentieth century largemouth bass have been introduced successfully all over the world. (Carlander, 1977; Hubbs, 1964; Page and Burr, 1991)

What kind of habitat do they need?

Largemouth bass prefer quiet, clear waters with abundant vegetation (Iguchi and Matsuura, 2004). More specifically, they prefer shallow water that is usually no deeper than 2.5 meters, but they sometimes occupy deeper regions. Abundant vegetation is important because it allows bass to hide from their prey and provides protection against predators. Their environment is also made up of regions of clear waters where the bass' vision can be utilized to detect prey. (Hannon, 1996; Iguchi and Matsuura, 2004)

  • Aquatic Biomes
  • lakes and ponds
  • rivers and streams
  • Range depth
    0 to 3 m
    0.00 to 9.84 ft

How do they grow?

After hatching, which usually takes from three to four days, larvae form a school that moves with the close protection of a male adult. Once the individuals reach a length of almost three centimeters they leave the school to fend for themselves. At this point, the juveniles are approximately one month in age. From this point on their growth rate occurs at different speeds throughout their lives. During the first year, largemouth bass grow from 10 to 20 centimeters in length. Growth rate decreases every year, and after about five to six years there is very little change in length. (Scovell, 2005)

How do they reproduce?

During the breeding season, each male prepares and builds a nest in shallow water. Nests are generally very crude in design. Once the nest is built a female swims near, and following an act of courtship, she lay her eggs in the nest. (Becker, 1983; Dewoody, et al., 2000)

Micropterus salmoides breeds in the spring. This time is determined by the temperature of the water, which usually ends up being around 60 degrees Fahrenheit. Females lay their eggs in the nests of males, and males then guard the eggs until they hatch. On average there are about 3,000 fry per nest, but as many as 6,000 have been observed (Becker, 1983). Following hatching, the schooling fry remain close to their father for at most one month (Dewoody et al., 2000). Largemouth bass females reach sexual maturity at four to five months of age, and males reach sexual maturity at three to four months of age. (Becker, 1983; Dewoody, et al., 2000)

  • How often does reproduction occur?
    Largemouth bass breed once per year
  • Breeding season
    Largemouth bass breed in the spring months (when water temperature reaches about 60 degrees Fahrenheit)
  • Range number of offspring
    6000 (high)
  • Average number of offspring
    3000
  • Range time to hatching
    3 to 4 days
  • Average time to independence
    1 months
  • Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
    4 to 5 months
  • Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
    3 to 4 months

Female largemouth bass do not invest anything more than their gametes to their offspring. Males begin their investment by constructing nests as well as defending these nests from intruders. Once the eggs hatch males remain with their broods and defend them against all predators. This continues usually for about a month. (Becker, 1983; Cooke, et al., 2001)

  • Parental Investment
  • pre-fertilization
    • protecting
      • male
  • pre-hatching/birth
    • protecting
      • male
  • pre-weaning/fledging
    • protecting
      • male

How long do they live?

Largemouth bass live much longer in the wild than they do in captivity. The longest known lifespan of a wild largemouth bass was 23 years. The expected lifespan in the wild, though, is around 15 years. In captivity the longest lifespan recorded was 11 years, while the average age of death in captivity is around 6 years. (Becker, 1983; Boschung, et al., 2004; Carlander, 1977; Hubbs, 1964)

How do they behave?

In the morning, largemouth bass tend to be very mobile and remain in deep waters (>2.5 m). In the afternoon, bass are sedentary and are usually found near a larger structure in deeper water. As the sun goes down largemouth bass become very mobile and move into shallow water. They remain active throughout the night with a slight decrease in mobility. Movement of bass usually correlates to movement of prey species. The home ranges of largemouth bass are relatively small and overlap with each other. Despite this, there is very little agonistic behavior between individuals and most interaction occurs during spawning. (Demers and McKinley, 1996; Sammons and Maceina, 2005)

  • Range territory size
    0.001 to .5 km^2

Home Range

Home range size for M. salmoides ranges from 0.1 to 50 ha. (Sammons and Maceina, 2005)

How do they communicate with each other?

Largemouth bass perceive their environment through visual, auditory, tactile, and chemical means, as do most fish. (von der Emde, et al., 2004)

What do they eat?

Immature Micropterus salmoides feed on zooplankton and aquatic insects. As they grow their diet shifts to crayfish and other fish species. Sunfish are the food of choice for most adult largemouth bass. (Olsen and Young, 2003)

  • Animal Foods
  • fish
  • insects
  • aquatic crustaceans
  • zooplankton

What eats them and how do they avoid being eaten?

Larval and juvenile largemouth bass are prey species of yellow perch, walleye, northern pike, and muskellunge. As adults, largemouth bass can usually escape most predators. The primary predators on adult largemouth bass are humans. (Paulson and Hatch, 2002)

What roles do they have in the ecosystem?

Micropterus salmoides plays an important role in the ecosystem as a top predator. Top predators are important because they maintain the populations of all of the animals below them in the food chain. Their success is not limited by any specific type of prey. Instead, they prey upon a number of species, and therefore maintain the health and viability of the ecosystem. (Olsen and Young, 2003)

Do they cause problems?

With its many introductions all over the world, M. salmoides has had many negative impacts on the native ecosystems. Two of the main impacts are the loss of biodiversity and the homogenization of ecosystems. Introduced poplulations also influence the densities of other sport fishes like trout and walleye. These issues are currently being studied and management plans are being implemented all over the world. (Jackson, 2002)

How do they interact with us?

Largemouth bass are important game fish. They are one of the most popular fishes to catch and they continue to bring popularity to the sport of fishing. (Becker, 1983; Boschung, et al., 2004; Hubbs, 1964; Jackson, 2002; Paulson and Hatch, 2002; Scovell, 2005)

  • Ways that people benefit from these animals:
  • food
  • research and education
  • controls pest population

Are they endangered?

Micropterus salmoides does not find itself on any of the lists of endangered species around the world. In fact the largemouth bass is one of the most successful fish, not only in its native areas, but also in freshwater areas all over the world where it has been introduced. There are certain fishing regulations that are set upon the catching of largemouth bass and these differ among regions. They involve either a limit to the number you can catch, a limit on the size that you can keep, or regulations on the season of the year in which you can catch them. (Becker, 1983; Boschung, et al., 2004; Hubbs, 1964; Jackson, 2002; Paulson and Hatch, 2002; Scovell, 2005)

Contributors

Allison Poor (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.

Ryan Curtis (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Kevin Wehrly (editor, instructor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.

Glossary

Ethiopian

living in sub-Saharan Africa (south of 30 degrees north) and Madagascar.

World Map

Nearctic

living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.

World Map

Neotropical

living in the southern part of the New World. In other words, Central and South America.

World Map

Palearctic

living in the northern part of the Old World. In otherwords, Europe and Asia and northern Africa.

World Map

acoustic

uses sound to communicate

bilateral symmetry

having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends.

carnivore

an animal that mainly eats meat

chemical

uses smells or other chemicals to communicate

cosmopolitan

having a worldwide distribution. Found on all continents (except maybe Antarctica) and in all biogeographic provinces; or in all the major oceans (Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific.

diurnal
  1. active during the day, 2. lasting for one day.
ectothermic

animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature

fertilization

union of egg and spermatozoan

food

A substance that provides both nutrients and energy to a living thing.

freshwater

mainly lives in water that is not salty.

heterothermic

animals that have little or no ability to regulate their body temperature, body temperatures fluctuate with the temperature of their environment, often referred to as 'cold-blooded'.

introduced

referring to animal species that have been transported to and established populations in regions outside of their natural range, usually through human action.

iteroparous

offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).

motile

having the capacity to move from one place to another.

natatorial

specialized for swimming

native range

the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.

nocturnal

active during the night

oriental

found in the oriental region of the world. In other words, India and southeast Asia.

World Map

oviparous

reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.

piscivore

an animal that mainly eats fish

polyandrous

Referring to a mating system in which a female mates with several males during one breeding season (compare polygynous).

seasonal breeding

breeding is confined to a particular season

sedentary

remains in the same area

sexual

reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female

tactile

uses touch to communicate

temperate

that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).

territorial

defends an area within the home range, occupied by a single animals or group of animals of the same species and held through overt defense, display, or advertisement

visual

uses sight to communicate

zooplankton

small animals that float or drift in great numbers in fresh or salt water, especially at or near the surface. These serve as food for many larger organisms. (Compare to phytoplankton.)

References

Bailey, R., W. Latta, G. Smith. 2004. An Atlas of Michigan Fishes. Ann Arbor, MI: Miscellaneous Publications.

Becker, G. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. Madison, Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press. Accessed December 06, 2005 at http://www.seagrant.wisc.edu/greatlakesfish/becker.html.

Boschung, H., R. Mayden, J. Tomelleri. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Mobile, Al: Smithsonian Books.

Carlander, K. 1977. Handbook of Freshwater Fishery Biology. Ames: Iowa State University Press.

Cooke, S., R. Mckinley, D. Phillip. 2001. Physical activity and Behavior of a Centrarchid fish, Micropterus salmoides, during spawning. Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 10: 227-237.

Demers, E., R. McKinley. 1996. Activity Patterns of largemouth bass. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 125: 434-439.

Dewoody, J., D. Fletcher, D. Wilkins, W. Nelson, J. Anise. 2000. Genetic Monogamy and Biparental Care in a Externally Fertilizing Fish, the Largemouth Bass. The Royal Society, 267: 2431-2437.

Hannon, D. 1996. Perfect Bass Water. Outdoor Life, 197 #5: 42.

Hubbs, C. 1964. Fishes of the Great Lakes Region. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Iguchi, K., K. Matsuura. 2004. Predicting Invasions of North American Basses in Japan Using Native Range Data and a Genetic Algorithm. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 133: 845–854.

Jackson, D. 2002. Ecological effects of Micropterus introductions: The dark side of black bass. American Fisheries Society Symposium, 31: 221-232. Accessed December 07, 2005 at http://www.zoo.utoronto.ca/jackson/black%20bass%20symposium.pdf.

Olsen, M., B. Young. 2003. Patterns of Diet and Growth in Co-occurring Populations of Largemouth Bass and Smallmouth Bass. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 132: 1207-1213.

Page, L., B. Burr. 1991. A Field Guide to Freshwater Fishes. Boston, Mass: Houghton Mifflin.

Paulson, N., J. Hatch. 2002. "Largemouth Bass - Micropterus salmoides" (On-line). Accessed October 17, 2005 at http://www.gen.umn.edu/research/fish/fishes/largemouth_bass.html.

Sammons, S., M. Maceina. 2005. Activity Patterns of Largemouth Bass in a subtropical US Reservoir. Fisheries Management and Ecology, 12: 331-339.

Scovell, D. 2005. "Black Bass" (On-line). Accessed October 15, 2005 at http://floridafisheries.com/Fishes/bass.html.

von der Emde, G., J. Mogdans, B. Kapoor. 2004. The senses of fish : adaptations for the reception of natural stimuli. Boston: Kluwer.

 
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Curtis, R. 2006. "Micropterus salmoides" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 25, 2014 at http://www.biokids.umich.edu/accounts/Micropterus_salmoides/

BioKIDS is sponsored in part by the Interagency Education Research Initiative. It is a partnership of the University of Michigan School of Education, University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, and the Detroit Public Schools. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant DRL-0628151.
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