Pugnose shiners have a very small mouth that is angled up sharply. Their scales are silvery, and their bodies have a dark stripe on each side stretching from their nose all the way to their tail fin. Their bellies are yellowish and they have a thin, dark line along their back. Their tail fins are clear. (Page and Burr, 2011)
Pugnose shiners live in the Great Lakes and Mississippi River basins from eastern Ontario and western New York to southeastern North Dakota. They used to live as far as central Illinois, but aren't found there anymore. ("COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the pugnose shiner in Canada.", 2002; Derosier, 2004; Page and Burr, 2011)
Pugnose shiners live in lakes and pools with clear water that have lots of plants. They are also found in clear streams and rivers with slow-moving water. They don't like water that is cloudy with sand or sediment. (Derosier, 2004)
Scientists don't know much about how pugnose shiners develop. Eggs in other shiner species usually hatch 1 or 2 days after they are fertilized. The young grow quickly in the first 2 months. (Moore, 1944; Reed, 1958)
Males pugnose shiners have a longer pelvic fin than females, but otherwise males and females look the same. Both males and females have multiple mates. (Becker, 1983)
Pugnose shiners scatter their eggs in shallow water less than 2 m deep that has lots of plants in it. They usually lay their eggs in places where the water temperature is 21°C to 29°C. (Bouvier, et al., 2010)
Pugnose shiners scatter their eggs randomly. They don't invest time or energy into their offspring after they release and fertilize the eggs. (Stewart and Watkinson, 2004)
Pugnose shiners eat, travel, and scatter their eggs in groups, or schools. They are very rare, so scientists don't know much about their behavior. (Becker, 1983)
Scientists don't know the size of the home range of pugnose shiners.
Like many of their relatives, pugnose shiners have a "Weberian apparatus" that allows them to hear vibrations in the water. They hear the vibrations using their swim bladder, which is normally just used to keep the fish floating. Pugnose shiners give off a warning signal when they are hurt, which other pugnose shiners can understand. (Nelson, 2006; Smith, 1992)
Pugnose shiners eat plants and animals less than 2 mm in size. They eat algae like common stonewort, water fleas, other water fleas, and small leeches. ("COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the pugnose shiner in Canada.", 2002)
Pugnose shiners are eaten by larger fishes. (Bouvier, et al., 2010)
There isn't much information about the ecological roles of pugnose shiners. They are eaten by larger fish and eat very small algae and invertebrates. They compete for resources with invasive fish and plants, mostly common carp and Eurasian water milfoil. (Stewart and Watkinson, 2004)
There are no known negative effects of pugnose shiners on humans.
Pugnose shiners are sensitive to changes in their environment, so they are can be used by conservationists to tell if an ecosystem is healthy. (Stewart and Watkinson, 2004)
Pugnose shiners are rare and are considered threatened, endangered, or of special concern in nearly all of the states where they live and also in Canada. They are "Near Threatened," according to the IUCN Red List. They are endangered in Michigan. Pugnose shiners are threatened by competition with invasive species, mostly common carp and Eurasian water milfoil.
Lindsay Wright (author), Minnesota State University, Mankato, Jeremy Wright (author, editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Robert Sorensen (editor), Minnesota State University, Mankato, Catherine Kent (editor), Special Projects.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
uses sound to communicate
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends.
an animal that mainly eats meat
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
an animal that mainly eats decomposed plants and/or animals
humans benefit economically by promoting tourism that focuses on the appreciation of natural areas or animals. Ecotourism implies that there are existing programs that profit from the appreciation of natural areas or animals.
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
union of egg and spermatozoan
mainly lives in water that is not salty.
An animal that eats mainly plants or parts of plants.
An animal that eats mainly insects or spiders.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
specialized for swimming
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
an animal that mainly eats all kinds of things, including plants and animals
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
the kind of polygamy in which a female pairs with several males, each of which also pairs with several different females.
breeding is confined to a particular season
offspring are all produced in a single group (litter, clutch, etc.), after which the parent usually dies. Semelparous organisms often only live through a single season/year (or other periodic change in conditions) but may live for many seasons. In both cases reproduction occurs as a single investment of energy in offspring, with no future chance for investment in reproduction.
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
uses touch to communicate
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
movements of a hard surface that are produced by animals as signals to others
uses sight to communicate
2002. "COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the pugnose shiner in Canada." (On-line). Accessed April 14, 2011 at http://dsp-psd.pwgsc.gc.ca/Collection/CW69-14-309-2003E.pdf.
2003. "Development and Growth in fish" (On-line). Earthlife.net. Accessed May 02, 2011 at http://www.earthlife.net/fish/development.html.
2006. "Rare species explorer-Notropis anogenus" (On-line). Michigan natural features inventory. Accessed April 14, 2011 at http://web4.msue.msu.edu/mnfi/explorer/species.cfm?id=11316.
Becker, G. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Bouvier, L., A. Boyko, N. Mandarak. 2010. Information in support of a recovery potential assessment of Pugnose shiner in Canada. Fisheries and Oceans-Canada, 23: 23. Accessed May 02, 2011 at http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2011/mpo-dfo/Fs70-5-2010-009.pdf.
Derosier, A. 2004. "Special Animal Abstract for Nortopis anogenus (pugnose shiner)." (On-line). Michigan Natural Features. Accessed April 20, 2011 at http://web4.msue.msu.edu/mnfi/abstracts/zoology/Notropis_anogenus.pdf.
Moore, G. 1944. Notes on the early life history of Notropis girardi. Copeia, 1944: 209-214.
Nelson, J. 2006. Fishes of the World, 4th Edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, Inc..
Page, L., B. Burr. 2011. Peterson Field Guide to Freshwater Fishes of North America North of Mexico, 2nd Edition. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Reed, R. 1958. The early life history of two cyprinids, Notropis rubellus> and <<Campostoma anomalum pullum. Copeia, 1958: 325-327.
Smith, R. 1992. Alarm signals in fishes. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 2: 33-63.
Stewart, K., D. Watkinson. 2004. The Freshwater Fishes of Manitoba. Winnipeg: Univeristy of Manitoba Press. Accessed May 02, 2011 at http://books.google.com/books?id=VyzuWkePgtsC&pg=PA81&dq=freshwater+fishes+Notropis+anogenus&hl=en&ei=-fy-TavLEOnc0QHs_6TaCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CD4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=freshwater%20fishes%20Notropis%20anogenus&f=false.