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Western Fox Snake

Pantherophis vulpinus

What do they look like?

Western fox snakes are usually between 91 and 137 cm long. The published record is 179 cm. They are blotched snake, with light brown to black spots. The head varies from brown to reddish. The reddish head is often mistaken as a copperhead and often spells the end of that snake. The belly is yellow and checkered with black. The scales are weakly keeled. The young look distinctively different. The dark spots are rich brown usually edged with black or dark brown. The head has a dark transverse line anterior to eyes and a dark line from eye to angle of jaw. The lines on the head fade away with age. Western fox snakes have an average of 41 blotches. (Conant and Collins, 1998)

  • Sexual Dimorphism
  • sexes alike
  • Range length
    91 to 179 cm
    35.83 to 70.47 in

Where do they live?

Western fox snakes are found from the central part of Michigan's upper peninsula west into South Dakota, Missouri, and Indiana.

What kind of habitat do they need?

Western fox snakes are found in grasslands, prairies, dune areas, farm fields, pastures, and woodlots. They are typically found fairly close to water. Like all snakes, they can be found basking near the edge of marshes or in grassland clearings. (Michigan Natural Features Inventory, 2004)

How do they reproduce?

Western fox snakes mate from April to July. The female lays her eggs anywhere from late June to early August. She usually lays from 6 to 29 firm leathery eggs that are from 3.8 to 5 cm long. The young hatch from late August to October and are 25.5 to 33 cm long. (Rigg, 1998)

  • How often does reproduction occur?
    Western fox snakes breed once each year.
  • Breeding season
    Western fox snakes mate from April to July.
  • Range number of offspring
    6 to 29

How long do they live?

  • Average lifespan
    Status: captivity
    17 years

How do they behave?

Western fox snakes have good climbing skills but are usually seen on the ground in fields or marshes. When annoyed, irritated or scared these fox snakes vibrate their tail. Although most people associate this behavior with rattlesnakes, fox snakes only bite if provoked. Unfortunately these snakes are fairly large and, with the vibrating of the tail, are mistaken as a possible threat and is often killed. (Rigg, 1998)

What do they eat?

Western fox snakes eat small mammals and occasional birds. They eat meadow voles, deer mice, eggs, fledgling birds, and newborn rabbits. Western fox snakes kill their prey by constriction. (Rigg, 1998)

  • Primary Diet
  • carnivore
    • eats terrestrial vertebrates
  • Animal Foods
  • birds
  • mammals

Do they cause problems?

Western fox snakes are harmless snakes, there are no negative effects of this species on humans.

How do they interact with us?

Western fox snakes help keep pest populations down. They often inhabit agricultural lands and prey on rabbits and rodents.

  • Ways that people benefit from these animals:
  • controls pest population

Are they endangered?

Western fox snakes are often mistaken for rattlesnakes. As a result they are often indiscriminately killed. In fact, they are harmless and beneficial. Western fox snake populations also suffer from habitat destruction, illegal collecting, and being hit by cars. Currently populations of western fox snakes are considered stable.


Tanya Dewey (editor), Animal Diversity Web.

Andrew Brinker (author), Michigan State University, James Harding (editor), Michigan State University.



living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.

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living in landscapes dominated by human agriculture.


an animal that mainly eats meat

  1. active during the day, 2. lasting for one day.

forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.


animals that have little or no ability to regulate their body temperature, body temperatures fluctuate with the temperature of their environment, often referred to as 'cold-blooded'.


the state that some animals enter during winter in which bodily functions slow down, reducing their energy requirements so that they can live through a season with little food.


offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).


marshes are wetland areas often dominated by grasses and reeds.

native range

the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.


reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.

seasonal breeding

breeding is confined to a particular season


remains in the same area


reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female


lives alone


that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).


Living on the ground.

tropical savanna and grassland

A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome.

temperate grassland


Collins, J. 1997. Standard Common and Current Scientific names For North American Amphibians and Reptiles. Lawrence, Kansas: Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

Conant, R., J. Collins. 1998. Reptiles and Amphibians Eastern/Central North America. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Johnson, T. 2002. "Snakes of Missouri" (On-line). Accessed 1 August 2002 at

Michigan Natural Features Inventory, 2004. "Eastern fox snake" (On-line). Michigan Natural Features Inventory. Accessed November 03, 2006 at

Rigg, D. 1998. Accessed November 13, 1999; now obsolete at

University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyNational Science Foundation

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Brinker, A. 2007. "Pantherophis vulpinus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 24, 2014 at

BioKIDS is sponsored in part by the Interagency Education Research Initiative. It is a partnership of the University of Michigan School of Education, University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, and the Detroit Public Schools. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant DRL-0628151.
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