Anchor stink bugs can be many different colors, from all steel blue to blue-black with red, orange and cream markings, to reddish brown with yellow markings. Others are red behind their head with a blue-black stripe down the middle. They also go through 5 stages of development before they become adults, and their colors change as they develop. Different parts of their bodies change between black, red, and yellow. Anchor stink bugs are easy to tell apart because part of their body called a scutellum is large and shaped like the letter "U", just like in a shield bug. (Blatchley, 1926; McPherson, 1982; Oetting and Yonke, 1971; Richman and Mead, 2008)
Anchor stink bugs live in North America from the north in Ontario, Canada and New England, south to Florida and Mexico. They are found as far west as Iowa, Kansas, and Texas. They have also been found in California. (Blatchley, 1926; McPherson, 1982)
Anchor stink bugs live mostly in open areas like waste areas, old fields, and farm fields. They live on plants where they find insects to eat. They are also found along the edges of groups of trees and wet marsh areas in Florida. (Blatchley, 1926; Howard and Landis, 1936; McPherson and Mohlenbrock, 1976; McPherson, 1982; Oetting and Yonke, 1971; Richman and Mead, 2008; Richman and Whitcomb, 1978; Waddill and Shepard, 1975)
Like most true bugs, anchor stink bugs start life as eggs, grow and develop as juveniles, and later become adults. The eggs take 8 to 11 days to hatch. They go through 5 stages of development before they become adults, which are called instars. Each of these lasts 3 to 15 days. There are two generations of anchor stink bugs per year. Adults of one generation lay eggs in early spring. The second generation starts laying eggs in late May or early June. Females lay several groups of eggs about 4 days apart. Females lay eggs in a double row, and there are 11.4 eggs in a group on average. The eggs are oval-shaped with ridges, and are almost black. They are 1.30 mm long and 1.03 mm around on average. In the second stage of development they start to eat smaller insects. They stop eating about 2 days before each time they go through another stage of development. (Blatchley, 1926; McPherson, 1982; Oetting and Yonke, 1971; Rebagliati, et al., 2005; Richman and Mead, 2008; Richman and Whitcomb, 1978; Waddill and Shepard, 1974)
Anchor stink bugs have 2 generations each year in most places where they live. They live by themselves except during mating. Males and females mate have more than one mate. They attract mates by releasing chemicals from underneath their abdomen. (Aldrich, et al., 1986; Kochansky, et al., 1989; Oetting and Yonke, 1971; Richman and Whitcomb, 1978; Waddill and Shepard, 1974)
Anchor stink bugs mate and lay eggs the whole time they are alive. Females lay groups of about 11.4 eggs. The lay a total of about 68 to 70 eggs while they are alive. There are two generations of anchor stink bugs each year. The first generation mates from early spring to May and the second generation mates from late May or early June through fall. They are independent from their parents right after they hatch. (Oetting and Yonke, 1971; Richman and Mead, 2008; Richman and Whitcomb, 1978; Waddill and Shepard, 1974)
Anchor stink bugs only live a few weeks or months. When they are raised in captivity, the eggs take 8 to 11 days to hatch. Their first stage of development is 4 to 8 days, the second 3 to 8 days, the third 3 to 7 days, the fourth 4 to 6 days, and the fifth 7 to 15 days. The adults often live through the summer, so they live about a few weeks as adults. The second generation lives through the winter, but is inactive most of the time they're alive. (McPherson, 1982; Oetting and Yonke, 1971)
Like many insects, anchor stink bugs communicate using their senses of sight and smell. Males release a chemical that attracts both females and other males from farther away. They probably use their sense of sight to find each other when they are closer together. They probably smell using their antennae. Like all stink bugs, they give off a musty smell when humans touch them. This is probably used to fend off predators. (Aldrich, et al., 1986; Blatchley, 1926; Kochansky, et al., 1989; McPherson, 1982; Rebagliati, et al., 2005; Staddon, 1979)
Anchor stink bugs begin eating insects in their second phase of development. They eat larvae of moths and butterflies and beetles. They stab the larvae with their beak, spit out digestive chemicals, and then suck up the digested larvae. Moths and butterflies they eat are black swallowtails, sleepy orange butterfiles, Baltimore checkerspot butterflies, soybean loopers, cabbage loopers, gypsy moths, and tent caterpillars. Beetle larvae they eat are alfafa weevils, Mexican bean beetles, squash beetles, Colorado potato beetles, sumac flea beetles, green tortise beetles, ragweed leaf beetles, leaf beetles, spotted asparagus beetles, cottonwood leaf beetles, and elm leaf beetles. (Blatchley, 1926; Dietz, et al., 1976; Eisner and Eisner, 2000; Hayslip, et al., 1953; Howard and Landis, 1936; McPherson and Mohlenbrock, 1976; McPherson, 1982; Oetting and Yonke, 1971; Richman and Mead, 2008; Richman and Whitcomb, 1978; Richman, 1977; Scholtens, 1990; Waddill and Shepard, 1974; Waddill and Shepard, 1975)
Like all stink bugs, anchor stink bugs give off a musty smell when humans touch them. This is probably used to fend off predators. However, researchers haven't recorded any predators of anchor stinkbugs. (Eger and Ables, 1981; Oetting and Yonke, 1971)
Anchor stink bugs may impact farms, where they can be pretty common. They also affect the beetles, moths, and butterflies that they eat, and are a significant predator of Baltimore checkerspot butterflies. Their only parasites are tachinid flies. Tachinid fly larvae grows inside adult anchor stink bugs. (Blatchley, 1926; Eger and Ables, 1981; Hayslip, et al., 1953; Howard and Landis, 1936; McPherson, 1982; Oetting and Yonke, 1971; Richman, 1977; Scholtens, 1990; Waddill and Shepard, 1974; Waddill and Shepard, 1975)
Anchor stink bugs eat many other bugs that eat soybean and alfalfa crops planted by farmers. This may mean they benefit farming in the southern United States, but researchers haven't been table to show this for sure or not. (DeCoursey and Allen, 1968; Hayslip, et al., 1953; Howard and Landis, 1936; McPherson, 1982; Richman and Mead, 2008; Richman, 1977; Waddill and Shepard, 1974; Waddill and Shepard, 1975)
Anchor stink bugs are not endangered or threatened.
Brian Scholtens (author), University of Michigan Biological Station, Catherine Kent (editor), Special Projects.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
living in landscapes dominated by human agriculture.
having colors that act to protect the animal, often from predators. For example: animals that are bright red or yellow are often toxic or distasteful, their colors discourage predators from eating them.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends.
an animal that mainly eats meat
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
a period of time when growth or development is suspended in insects and other invertebrates, it can usually only be ended the appropriate environmental stimulus.
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
union of egg and spermatozoan
the state that some animals enter during winter in which bodily functions slow down, reducing their energy requirements so that they can live through a season with little food.
An animal that eats mainly insects or spiders.
fertilization takes place within the female's body
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
marshes are wetland areas often dominated by grasses and reeds.
A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
chemicals released into air or water that are detected by and responded to by other animals of the same species
the kind of polygamy in which a female pairs with several males, each of which also pairs with several different females.
"many forms." A species is polymorphic if its individuals can be divided into two or more easily recognized groups, based on structure, color, or other similar characteristics. The term only applies when the distinct groups can be found in the same area; graded or clinal variation throughout the range of a species (e.g. a north-to-south decrease in size) is not polymorphism. Polymorphic characteristics may be inherited because the differences have a genetic basis, or they may be the result of environmental influences. We do not consider sexual differences (i.e. sexual dimorphism), seasonal changes (e.g. change in fur color), or age-related changes to be polymorphic. Polymorphism in a local population can be an adaptation to prevent density-dependent predation, where predators preferentially prey on the most common morph.
Referring to something living or located adjacent to a waterbody (usually, but not always, a river or stream).
breeding is confined to a particular season
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
living in residential areas on the outskirts of large cities or towns.
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome.
uses sight to communicate
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