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Tenodera aridifolia

What do they look like?

Chinese mantids are about 7 cm long and weigh about 3 grams. They have a tan, brown, or sometimes pale green cuticle, and the edge of the forewings forms a green stripe on the side of the body. The head is triangular and can swivel a full 180 degrees, and they have very large eyes. Just like in all other mantis species, the first pair of legs is modified into a folded pair of arms that are used to grab prey. Male and female Chinese mantids are noticeably different. On average, females are 10 cm long (or even longer), which is about 2 cm longer than the males. ("Chinese Mantis", 2012; Iwasaki, 1996; Jensen, et al., 2009; Kaltenpoth, 2005; Maxwell, et al., 2010; Mazer, 2004)

  • Sexual Dimorphism
  • female larger
  • Average mass
    3 g
    0.11 oz
  • Range length
    5.08 to 12.7 cm
    2.00 to 5.00 in
  • Average length
    7 cm
    2.76 in
  • Average wingspan
    4 cm
    1.57 in

Where do they live?

Chinese mantids (Tenodera aridifolia) are native to Asia, specifically Japan, India, and Indonesia. The species was introduced to the United States by humans in the late 1800s and now is common throughout the United States, especially the eastern United States and California. Today, Chinese mantids can be found throughout most of Asia. They also have been introduced into Australia. They are common throughout the Oriental and Nearctic regions. (Hurd, et al., 2004; Jensen, et al., 2009; Mazer, 2004)

What kind of habitat do they need?

Chinese mantids are the most widespread and abundant mantis species in temperate zones. This species usually is found in grasslands, meadows, agricultural fields, woodlands, and near rivers and streams. It is common in humid habitats. Chinese mantids inhabit a broad range of land in various stages of ecological succession, most commonly in old-field ecosystems. They spend most of their time on herbaceous plants and woody shrubs and also can be found near flowers. (Beckman and Hurd, 2003; "Chinese Mantis", 2012; Maxwell, et al., 2010; Mazer, 2004; Watanabe, et al., 2011)

How do they grow?

Like all mantises, Chinese mantids are hemimetabolous insects, which means that they develop by incomplete metamorphosis. Incomplete metamorphosis is a life cycle that begins with an egg, which hatches into the larval form (called a nymph), and then develops into an adult. Incomplete metamorphosis skips the pupal stage, which is the difference between incomplete and complete metamorphosis. Chinese mantid eggs are laid on plants in a protective egg case called an ootheca. The ootheca is laid as a frothy material, which hardens to form a protective case around the eggs. The eggs begin to develop immediately after being laid within the ootheca, until the cold weather triggers dormancy (hibernation). The eggs overwinter until temperatures become warmer. Excluding the overwintering time, eggs hatch after about 6 weeks of development in early spring. Nymphs grow through as many as 7 instars before developing wings and becoming adults in late summer. Adults reproduce and survive until the first frost. (Hurd, et al., 2004; Iwasaki, 1996; Lelito and Brown, 2008; Watanabe, et al., 2011; Yato, et al., 1990)

How do they reproduce?

Male Chinese mantids mate repeatedly and fertilize multiple females when possible. Females also mate with multiple males, but they usually lay only one ootheca (egg case), and the different eggs within a single ootheca may have different fathers. Only male Chinese mantids fly, so the males actively seek mates. Males detect and follow long-distance pheromones (secreted chemical signals) from up to 100 m away. To attract males, a female flexes her abdomen, which exposes the pheromone glands on her abdomen. These glands secrete chemical signals that can be used to communicate with other individuals. Males are more attracted to virgin females, which suggests that females decrease their pheromone production and other behaviors after their first mating event. Males perform courtship behaviors such as pumping their abdomens up and down and wiggling from side to side. They approach females directly from the front or from behind. Females also may approach males (although this happens rarely) and actively participate in courtship, showing such behaviors as stroking the forelimbs of the male. (Lelito and Brown, 2006; Lelito and Brown, 2008; Maxwell, et al., 2010; Watanabe, et al., 2011)

Chinese mantids are sexual cannibals--the female eats the male during or after copulation, often beheading him. Cannibalism benefits the female because she can obtain food by eating her mate. When prey is scarce and females are hungrier, they are more likely to cannibalize their mate. Hungrier females will even make predatory strikes toward males before copulation begins. The potential threat of cannibalism probably explains why males show more cautious behaviors and move much more slowly when they approach females from the front, in contrast to when they approach females from behind. These differences in courtship behaviors, which vary with the amount of risk involved, may be triggered by female pheromones or behavioral signals.

Sexual cannibalism may provide some benefits to the male, as well. Males can continue copulating after they have been beheaded, although they cannot mount new females on their own. Cannibalism may result in a longer copulation event, allowing the male to transfer more sperm to the female and possibly preventing other males from mating with her. (Lelito and Brown, 2006; Liske and Davis, 1987; Watanabe, et al., 2011)

Chinese mantids begin mating 8 to 10 days after their final molt, in the late summer or early fall. They can continue breeding until they die during the first frost, usually in the late fall. In general, Chinese mantids are univoltine, which means that one new generation appears and develops each year. The species generally is semelparous, which means that a female lays eggs only once in her lifetime. Female Chinese mantids usually lay only one ootheca (egg case), but the mantids at lower latitudes (where the climate is warmer and the breeding season is longer) can produce multiple oothecae if the temperatures are high enough later in the year. A single ootheca contains 50 to several hundred eggs. If a female produces multiple oothecae, she can lay about 600 eggs during the breeding season. Females produce smaller egg cases when prey are scarce, but the mantis species that cannibalize their mates (including Chinese mantids) lay larger oothecae and produce more offspring. Oothecae can weigh up to 1.5 g, which represents half the weight of a female. The significant weight of an ootheca indicates that females invest a large amount of resources in their offspring. Eggs overwinter and hatch the following spring. More males usually are born than females, but because of sexual cannibalism, adult Chinese mantid females are more common than males. (Hurd, et al., 2004; Jensen, et al., 2009; Lelito and Brown, 2006; Lelito and Brown, 2008; Liske and Davis, 1987; Watanabe, et al., 2011)

  • How often does reproduction occur?
    Chinese mantids breed whenever possible during their few months of adulthood
  • Breeding season
    Late summer until early winter
  • Range eggs per season
    50 to 600
  • Average eggs per season
    100
  • Average gestation period
    2 months
  • Average time to independence
    at birth, 0 minutes
  • Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
    6 months
  • Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
    6 months

Parental care in Chinese mantids is limited to the female creating the protective ootheca (egg case), which allows the eggs to develop safely until they hatch. Females invest a significant amount of energy carrying the eggs and creating the ootheca. They lay the eggs on plants in locations where conditions will prevent the eggs from drying out. After the eggs are laid, the adults provide no more care or protection. Males either leave or are killed after mating and provide no care. Adult Chinese mantids die when the first frost occurs, so they cannot provide any parental care for the nymphs that will hatch the following spring. (Iwasaki, 1996; Lelito and Brown, 2008)

  • Parental Investment
  • no parental involvement
  • pre-hatching/birth
    • provisioning
      • female

How long do they live?

Chinese mantids generally live about 6 to 9 months in the wild. Eggs hatch in the early spring when temperatures warm up, and adults die during the first frost. The lifespan of Chinese mantids can vary by latitude, because birth and death mostly are dependent on environmental temperatures. The most dangerous time for a Chinese mantid is just after it hatches in the spring, before its arthropod prey becomes abundant. Prey can be scarce in the home range of this mantis species, so nymphs and adults often die of starvation. About 90% of Chinese mantid nymphs die before reaching adulthood. They also are especially at risk of drying out. The number of males in a population, and the lifespan of males, are significantly lower due to sexual cannibalism by females. (Hurd, et al., 2004; Iwasaki, 1996; Lelito and Brown, 2008)

  • Typical lifespan
    Status: wild
    6 to 9 months
  • Typical lifespan
    Status: captivity
    6 to 9 months

How do they behave?

Chinese mantids are ferocious solitary predators, and many studies have investigated their complex hunting behavior. The large eyes of this species allow it to hunt prey primarily by vision, and it can see in any direction by swiveling its head a full 180 degrees.

Chinese mantids also can detect prey by olfaction (its sense of smell). The hunting strategy of the adults is to perch motionless on top of tall plants, grasses, or in tree branches–-ideally, any place with a clear view of the surroundings. As potential prey moves past (anything from other insects to small birds), the mantis quickly darts out in a lunge and grabs the prey with its folded arms. The prey collides with the femoral spines of the mantis forearms, and then the mantis tibias close to grasp the prey. Mantises hold their prey in their forearms while they feed, and the prey may still be alive as the mantis begins to eat.

Chinese mantids are mostly flightless, but males sometimes fly short distances. Females do not fly, even though they have wings. These mantids do not fly to catch prey. Instead, they wait in tall plants and use their modified front legs to grab or spear the prey that flies past. Chinese mantids are active mostly during the day. (Beckman and Hurd, 2003; "Chinese Mantis", 2012; Hurd, et al., 2004; Mazer, 2004; Prete, et al., 2011; Yamawaki, 2011)

  • Range territory size
    2 to 4 km^2

Home Range

Only male Chinese mantids can fly, and then only a limited distance. Thus, the size of their territory mainly is restricted to the distance that both the males and females walk. It is generally safe to assume that oothecae (egg cases) located at least 2 to 2.5 km away from each other were laid by different females. The territory of Chinese mantids is estimated to be about 4 km^2. The territories of individuals probably overlap. (Hurd, et al., 2004; Watanabe, et al., 2011)

How do they communicate with each other?

Like all mantises, Chinese mantids have excellent vision. They detect other Chinese mantids and prey visually. A Chinese mantid easily can keep track of moving objects due to its large eyes and the mobility of its head. Adult females secrete pheromones (chemical signals) that are detected by males looking for mates. Males probably detect pheromones using receptors on their antennae. Some tactile communication has been observed between males and females during courtship, such as the female stroking the forelimbs of the male. Nymphs also have been observed using their antennae to detect pollen grains, probably through a combination of tactile and chemical sensing. Adults can detect prey by olfaction (their sense of smell). (Beckman and Hurd, 2003; Liske and Davis, 1987; Maxwell, et al., 2010; Prete, et al., 2011; Yamawaki, 2011)

What do they eat?

Chinese mantids are generalist predators. They usually eat anything they can catch, preferring other arthropods (especially insects and spiders). Adult females have been known to catch small reptiles, amphibians, and sometimes even hummingbirds. Their prey is limited only by what they can catch. Chinese mantid nymphs will eat pollen to survive in times of low prey availability, while adults will eat pollinator insects that are covered in pollen, also eating the pollen. Adults sometimes will eat just pollen in times of limited prey. In addition, adult females sometimes practice sexual cannibalism. (Beckman and Hurd, 2003; "Chinese Mantis", 2012; Hurd, et al., 2004; Prete, et al., 2011)

  • Animal Foods
  • birds
  • amphibians
  • reptiles
  • insects
  • terrestrial non-insect arthropods
  • Plant Foods
  • pollen

What eats them and how do they avoid being eaten?

Chinese mantids are prey to a variety of animals, including reptiles, birds, and primates. When faced with a bird or lizard predator, Chinese mantids exhibit defensive behavior and posture, including a display called the deimatic response. The deimatic response involves elevating the front of the body, raising the wings, extending the back legs to the side, twisting the abdomen, and swaying violently from side to side. The Asian giant hornet also has been known to prey on Chinese mantids; however, the mantids can fight back and often prey on the hornets instead. (Balderrama and Maldonado, 1971; Handwerk, 2012; Yamawaki, 2011)

  • These animal colors help protect them
  • aposematic

What roles do they have in the ecosystem?

Chinese mantids are fierce predators. They have the potential to significantly affect other arthropod populations and can keep prey populations in check. Adult females often catch small vertebrates, but they probably do not catch enough to affect vertebrate population size.

Chinese mantids serve as prey for a variety of larger animals, including reptiles, birds, primates, and the Asian giant hornet.

The Chinese mantid is an introduced species. Thus, it competes with other mantis species in the United States and can threaten native mantis populations. ("Chinese Mantis", 2012; Handwerk, 2012; Hurd, et al., 2004; Yamawaki, 2011)

Species (or larger taxonomic groups) used as hosts by this species
  • None
Species (or larger taxonomic groups) that are mutualists with this species
  • None
Commensal or parasitic species (or larger taxonomic groups) that use this species as a host
  • None

Do they cause problems?

If provoked, Chinese mantids can bite or pinch a human being. Usually, they focus on prey items and ignore humans, and they even can be handled safely. Harm to humans is very rare but possible. ("Chinese Mantis", 2012)

  • Ways that these animals might be a problem for humans
  • injures humans
    • bites or stings

How do they interact with us?

Chinese mantids were introduced to the United States by humans in 1896 as a form of pest control. Today, they still can be purchased to reduce pest populations in gardens or agricultural fields. They also can be kept as pets, because they are mostly harmless to humans and are very easy to care for. They can be kept in a medium- to large-sized aquarium and need to be fed live insects every other day or so. Oothecae (egg cases) can be purchased in pet or gardening stores. ("Chinese Mantis", 2012; Hurd, et al., 2004)

  • Ways that people benefit from these animals:
  • pet trade
  • controls pest population

Are they endangered?

Chinese mantids have no special conservation status. (Mazer, 2004)

Contributors

Angela Miner (author), Animal Diversity Web Staff, Elizabeth Wason (editor), Animal Diversity Web Staff.

References

Conservation Commission of Missouri. 2012. "Chinese Mantis" (On-line). Missouri Department of Conservation. Accessed February 24, 2012 at http://mdc.mo.gov/node/2938.

Balderrama, N., H. Maldonado. 1971. Habituation of deimatic response in the mantid (Stagmatoptera biocellata). Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 75: 98-106.

Beckman, N., L. Hurd. 2003. Pollen feeding and fitness in praying mantids: The vegetarian side of a tritrophic predator. Environmental Entomology, 32/4: 881-885.

Handwerk, B. 2012. "'Hornets From Hell' Offer Real-Life Fright" (On-line). National Geographic. Accessed February 23, 2012 at http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/10/1025_021025_GiantHornets.html.

Hurd, L., R. Mallis, K. Bulka, A. Jones. 2004. Life history, environment, and deme extinction in the Chinese mantid Tenodera aridifolia sinensis (Mantodea: Mantidae). Environmental Entomology, 33/2: 182-187.

Iwasaki, T. 1996. Comparative studies on the life histories of two praying mantises, Tenodera aridifolia (Stoll) and Tenodera angustipennis Saussure (Mantodea: Mantidae). 1. Temporal pattern of egg hatch and nymphal development. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 31: 345-356.

Jensen, D., G. Svenson, H. Song, M. Whiting. 2009. Phylogeny and evolution of male genitalia within the praying mantis genus Tenodera (Mantodea: Mantidae). Invertebrate Systematics, 23: 409-421.

Kaltenpoth, M. 2005. Life history and Morphometry of the Chinese Praying Mantis, Tenodera aridifolia sinensis (Blattopteroidea: Mantodea). Entomologia Generalis, 28/1: 1-16.

Lelito, J., W. Brown. 2008. Mate attraction by females in a sexually cannibalistic praying mantis. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 63/2: 313-320.

Lelito, J., W. Brown. 2006. Natural history miscellany - Complicity or conflict over sexual cannibalism? Male risk taking in the praying mantis Tenodera aridifolia sinensis. American Naturalist, 168/2: 263-269.

Liske, E., W. Davis. 1987. Courtship and mating behaviour of the Chinese praying mantis, Tenodera aridifolia sinensis. Animal Behavior, 35: 1524-1537.

Maxwell, M., K. Barry, P. Johns. 2010. Examinations of Female Pheromone Use in Two Praying Mantids, Stagmomantis limbata and Tenodera aridifolia sinensis (Mantodea: Mantidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 103/1: 120-127.

Mazer, C. 2004. Chinese Mantid. Pp. 185-186 in M Hutchins, A Evans, J Jackson, D Kleiman, J Murphy, D Thony, eds. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, Vol. 3, 2 Edition. Detroit, MI: Gale Group.

Prete, F., J. Komito, S. Dominguez, G. Svenson, L. Lopez, A. Guillen, N. Bogdanivich. 2011. Visual stimuli that elicit appetitive behaviors in three morphologically distinct species of praying mantis. Journal of Comparative Physiology A-Neuroethology Sensory Neural and Behavioral Physiology, 197/9: 877-894.

Watanabe, E., T. Adachi-Hagimori, K. Miura, M. Maxwell, Y. Ando, Y. Takematsu. 2011. Multiple Paternity Within Field-Collected Egg Cases of the Praying Mantid Tenodera aridifolia. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 104/2: 348-352.

Yamawaki, Y. 2011. Defence behaviours of the praying mantis Tenodera aridifolia in response to looming objects. Journal of Insect Physiology, 57/11: 1510-1517.

Yato, M., S. Hitoshi, S. Oshima, H. Kawasaki. 1990. Enzymic activities involved in the oothecal sclerotization of the praying mantid, Tenodera aridifolia sinesis saussure. Insect Biochemistry, 20: 745-750.

 
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Miner, A. 2013. "Tenodera aridifolia" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed September 02, 2014 at http://www.biokids.umich.edu/accounts/Tenodera_aridifolia/

BioKIDS is sponsored in part by the Interagency Education Research Initiative. It is a partnership of the University of Michigan School of Education, University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, and the Detroit Public Schools. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant DRL-0628151.
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