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Thysanoptera

What do they look like?

Thrips are slender, elongate in their bodies and the head is elongate as well. They range in color from black to dark brown to tan to yellowish. They are usually hypognathous. The mouthparts consist of a single stylet on the mandible and two stylets on the maxilla. These form a feeding tube. Thrips have small or large compound eyes, and three ocelli are present in fully winged forms. The abdomen consists of eleven segments, whereby ten segments are visible. In some species, an ovipositor is present on the female. Forewings and hindwings are similar. They are narrow and have a setal fringe. The short antennae are in four to nine segments. The legs are short and have a retractile bladderlike organ. When inflated, this organ provides adhesion to smooth surfaces.

  • Sexual Dimorphism
  • sexes alike
  • female larger
  • Range length
    0.5 to 15.0 mm
    0.02 to 0.59 in

Where do they live?

Thrips are found worldwide. There are approximately 5000 species. More than 100 species inhabit the Great Lakes region.

What kind of habitat do they need?

Thrips are found in flower blossoms, on the undersides of leaves, in leaf whorls and axils, under bark, in mosses, in leaf litter and soil, on fungi, and on fruits and flower bulbs.

How do they grow?

These insects got through a kind of metamorphosis that is intermediate between simple (or gradual) and complete. The first two stages have no external wings and are larvae. Internally, wings may be developing. In some species, the third or fourth instar, the "prepupa," has external wings, but is inactive and does not feed. The fourth or fifth instar, the "pupa," is sometimes enclosed in a cocoon. After this, the adult results.

What do they eat?

Thrips are primarily phytophages; that is, they eat plants and parts of plants, such as pollen, flowers, leaves, fruits, twigs, or buds. They consume flower heads of daisies and dandelions. In addition, they feed on onions, carrots, melons, cucumbers, peas, beans, roses, gladiolus, irises, and mullein. Plant-feeding thrips pierce a hole using their mandibular stylet to suck out the contents of individual cells. Pollen-feeding thrips ingest the contents of individual pollen grains.

Some species that live in litter eat fungi or decaying plant materials. Others are gall inducers. There are some species of thrips that feed on mites, small insect larvae, and other species of thrips.

What roles do they have in the ecosystem?

Some species of thrips aid in biodegradation of organic materials.

Do they cause problems?

Some Thysanopterans are vectors of viruses that damage plants. Many thrips cause damage to important crops of vegetables, fruits, and flowers. In addition, when there is a proliferation in the numbers of thrips in the Great Lakes region, these insects may cause respiratory and skin irritation to agricultural workers. Thrips have been known to bite.

  • Ways that these animals might be a problem for humans
  • injures humans
    • bites or stings
  • crop pest

How do they interact with us?

Predatory and scavenger thrips are important eliminators of small arthropod pests and organic remains, respectively.

Some more information...

Although introduced species of thrips have adapted to the Great Lakes region, many species have yet to invade previously glaciated parts north of the Wisconsin glacial maxima.

Glossary

Australian

Living in Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania, New Guinea and associated islands.

World Map

Ethiopian

living in sub-Saharan Africa (south of 30 degrees north) and Madagascar.

World Map

Nearctic

living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.

World Map

Neotropical

living in the southern part of the New World. In other words, Central and South America.

World Map

Palearctic

living in the northern part of the Old World. In otherwords, Europe and Asia and northern Africa.

World Map

bilateral symmetry

having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends.

biodegradation

helps break down and decompose dead plants and/or animals

ectothermic

animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature

introduced

referring to animal species that have been transported to and established populations in regions outside of their natural range, usually through human action.

metamorphosis

A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.

native range

the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.

oceanic islands

islands that are not part of continental shelf areas, they are not, and have never been, connected to a continental land mass, most typically these are volcanic islands.

oriental

found in the oriental region of the world. In other words, India and southeast Asia.

World Map

parthenogenic

development takes place in an unfertilized egg

 
University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyNational Science Foundation

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. "Thysanoptera" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 25, 2014 at http://www.biokids.umich.edu/accounts/Thysanoptera/

BioKIDS is sponsored in part by the Interagency Education Research Initiative. It is a partnership of the University of Michigan School of Education, University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, and the Detroit Public Schools. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant DRL-0628151.
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