Like all spiders, hackled orbweavers have two body-segments, a cephalothorax in front and an abdomen behind. Adults are usually 3-10 mm long. They have eight legs, all attached to the cephalothorax. On the front they have two small "mini-legs" called palps. These are used to grab prey, and in mating, and are much bigger in male spiders than in females. Females in this family are often twice as large as males.
Michigan species in this family have two rows of four eyes each, though some tropical groups only have one row.
Unlike most spiders, this family doesn't have venom glands, their bite is harmless to people.
This is one of a few spider families that make a special kind of woolly, fuzzy silk. They have special structures on their abdomen and hind legs to produce this silk and make it into webs. This is where they get their name, webs made this way are called "hackled." See the Behavior section below for more information on this special webbing.
Most Hackled Orbweavers have dull colors: cream, gray, or brown are the most common.
Spiders in this family are found all over the world. Most species live in warm tropical climates, but we have a few species here in Michigan.
These spiders live in places with some vegetation, so they have places to put their webs. They also prefer warm and humid habitats, but a few species live in dry or cool places too.
Spiders hatch from eggs, and the hatchlings look more or less like grown-up spiders, though sometimes their colors change as they age. To grow they have to shed their exoskeleton, which they do many times during their lives.
Most spiders in this family probably live only a year or two at most.
These spiders often hide during the day. They don't move around too much, but stay near the spot where they build their webs. Some species are solitary, others seem to live in groups, and attach their webs together.
Like most spiders, Hackled Orbweavers use web-vibrations, touching, and scents to communicate.
These spiders eat small insects and other invertebrates. They spin flat webs that often look like an orb web or a piece of an orb web. Hackled orbweavers usually spin their webs horizontally, unlike the regular orbweaver family that makes their webs vertical.
The webs made by this family aren't sticky. Instead they are made with "hackled" silk, which is fuzzy and has lots of tiny fibers. These little fibers easily tangle up prey. Also, many species of hackled orbweavers stretch their webs and hold them tight. When a prey animal bumps into the web, it lets go of the web so that it collapses around the unlucky insect. Whenever they catch an animal in their web, they grab it and wrap it in more hackled silk. They don't have venom in their fangs, so they rely on their silk to hold their prey still.
Spiders in this family rely on their small size and camouflage colors. They often hide during the day.
These little spiders probably help eat insect pests, but the don't have any strong impacts on humans. A few species are found around houses, and some people may consider this a nuisance.
No Hackled Orbweaver species are known to be in danger, but there are many species still unknown to science.
Living in Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania, New Guinea and associated islands.
living in sub-Saharan Africa (south of 30 degrees north) and Madagascar.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
living in the southern part of the New World. In other words, Central and South America.
living in the northern part of the Old World. In otherwords, Europe and Asia and northern Africa.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends.
a wetland area rich in accumulated plant material and with acidic soils surrounding a body of open water. Bogs have a flora dominated by sedges, heaths, and sphagnum.
an animal that mainly eats meat
mid-altitude coastal areas with mild, rainy winters and long, dry summers. Dominant plant types are dense, evergreen shrubs.
active at dawn and dusk
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
parental care is carried out by females
union of egg and spermatozoan
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
fertilization takes place within the female's body
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
marshes are wetland areas often dominated by grasses and reeds.
This terrestrial biome includes summits of high mountains, either without vegetation or covered by low, tundra-like vegetation.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
active during the night
found in the oriental region of the world. In other words, India and southeast Asia.
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
rainforests, both temperate and tropical, are dominated by trees often forming a closed canopy with little light reaching the ground. Climbing plants are also abundant. There is plenty of moisture and rain, but may be somewhat seasonal.
scrub forests develop in areas that experience dry seasons.
breeding is confined to a particular season
remains in the same area
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
associates with others of its species; forms social groups.
a wetland area that may be permanently or intermittently covered in water, often dominated by woody vegetation.
this biome is characterized by large expanses of coniferous forest, there is an extended cold season and heavy snowfall.
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.