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red-tailed hawk

Buteo jamaicensis

What do they look like?

Red-tailed hawks average 48 to 65 centimeters in length. Their wingspan is approximately 4 feet, or 122 centimeters. There is sexual dimorphism in size: females are 25% larger than males. This kind of sexual dimorphism, where females are larger than males, is common in birds of prey.

Red-tailed hawk plumage ranges from light auburn to deep brown. The underbelly is lighter than the rest of the body, with a dark belly band across it. The cere (the soft skin at the base of the beak), the legs, and the feet are all yellow. The tail is uniformly red, and it is this trait that gives red-tailed hawks their name.

Immature red-tailed hawks look similar to adults. One difference is that immatures have yellowish-gray eyes that become dark brown as adults. (Preston and Beane, 1993)

  • Sexual Dimorphism
  • female larger
  • Range mass
    795 to 1224 g
    28.02 to 43.14 oz
  • Range length
    45 to 65 cm
    17.72 to 25.59 in
  • Average wingspan
    122 cm
    48.03 in

Where do they live?

Red-tailed hawks are native only to the Nearctic region. They are found throughout the United States and Canada, and into Mexico and Central America. Many birds are year round occupants although the birds of the far north migrate south during the fall to escape the harsh winter.

What kind of habitat do they need?

Red-tailed hawks live in a variety of habitats. In their habitat, they need open areas for hunting and several scattered perches. Some of the habitats that red-tailed hawks live in are scrub desert, grasslands, farm fields, pastures, parks, woodlands, and tropical rainforests. Red-tailed hawks prefer to build their nests at the edge of forests, in wooded fence rows, or in large trees surrounded by open areas. (Preston and Beane, 1993)

How do they reproduce?

Red-tailed hawks usually begin breeding when they are three years old. They are monogamous, and mate with the same individual for many years. In fact, red-tailed hawks usually only change mates when their original mate dies. During courtship, the male and female soar together in circles for up to 10 minutes before mating. (Preston and Beane, 1993)

Red-tailed hawk nests are usually 28 to 38 inches wide. They are often used for several years in a row, and can be up to 3 feet tall. The male and female work together to build the nest in a tall tree, 4 to 21 meters above the ground. Where there are not trees to build nests in, red-tailed hawks build their nests on cliff ledges or on man-made structures such as buildings. The nests are made of twigs and lined with bark, pine needles, corn cobs, husks, stalks, aspen catkins and other soft plant materials. The hawks put fresh bark, twigs, and pine needles in the nest throughout the breeding season to keep it clean.

The female lays 1 to 5 eggs around the first week of April. The eggs are laid every other day and are incubated for 28 to 35 days. Both parents incubate the eggs. Males bring food to the female while she is on the nest. The newly-hatched chicks are helpless (altricial). During the nestling stage, the female broods the young, and the male provides most of the food to the female and the chicks. The female feeds the chicks by tearing the food into small pieces. The chicks begin to leave the nest after 42 to 46 days. They learn to fly and hunt, and leave the nest for good after 10 weeks or so. (Preston and Beane, 1993)

  • How often does reproduction occur?
    Red-tailed hawks breed each spring.
  • Breeding season
    Breeding occurs in the spring.
  • Range eggs per season
    1 to 5
  • Average eggs per season
    3
    AnAge
  • Range time to hatching
    28 to 35 days
  • Average time to hatching
    30 days
  • Range fledging age
    42 to 46 days
  • Range time to independence
    10 (high) weeks
  • Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
    3 years
  • Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
    Sex: female
    730 days
    AnAge
  • Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
    3 years
  • Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
    Sex: male
    730 days
    AnAge

Both parents incubate the eggs. When the chicks are nestlings, the female broods them to protect them from predators and hot and cold temperatures. The male provides most of the food to the female and the chicks, and the female feeds the nestlings by tearing the food into small pieces. The chicks begin to leave the nest after 42 to 46 days. After they leave the nest, young red-tailed hawks usually stay close to their parents. They begin to fly about 3 weeks after they first begin to leave the nest, and begin to catch their own food 6 to 7 weeks after that. They become completely independent from their parents by about 10 weeks after fledging, at about 112 to 116 days old. (Preston and Beane, 1993)

  • Parental Investment
  • altricial
  • pre-fertilization
    • provisioning
    • protecting
      • female
  • pre-hatching/birth
    • provisioning
      • female
    • protecting
      • male
      • female
  • pre-weaning/fledging
    • provisioning
      • male
      • female
    • protecting
      • male
      • female
  • pre-independence
    • provisioning
      • male
      • female
    • protecting
      • male
      • female

How long do they live?

Red-tailed hawks are relatively long-lived birds. While many of these birds die young (most live less than two years), those that survive the first few years can live for many years. The oldest known wild red-tailed hawk lived to at least 21.5 years old. In captivity, red-tailed hawks have lived for at least 29.5 years. (Preston and Beane, 1993)

  • Range lifespan
    Status: wild
    29.5 (high) years
  • Range lifespan
    Status: captivity
    29.5 (high) years
  • Average lifespan
    Status: wild
    346 months
    Bird Banding Laboratory

How do they behave?

Red-tailed hawks are active during the day (diurnal). Red-tailed hawk pairs remain together for years in the same territory. These birds are very territorial, and defend territories that range in size from about 1 to 4 square kilometers. The territory size depends on the amount of food, perches, and nest sites in the area. The female is usually the more aggressive partner around the nest itself, whereas the male more aggressively defends the territory boundaries. The birds will soar over their territory, mostly on clear days, looking for intruders. (Preston and Beane, 1993)

  • Range territory size
    1.3 to 5.2 km^2

Home Range

Home range sizes range from 1.3 to 5.2 square kilometers. The size of red-tailed hawk home ranges varies with the quality of habitat, the sex of the individual, and the season. (Preston and Beane, 1993)

How do they communicate with each other?

Adult red-tailed hawks make a call that sounds like "kee-eeee-arrr." It is often described as sounding like a steam whistle. Young red-tailed hawks communicate with their parents by making soft, low "peep"-ing sounds.

Red-tailed hawks also communicate through body language. In an aggressive posture, the body and head of a red-tailed hawk are held upright, and its feathers are standing up. In submission, the hawk's head is lower to the ground and the feathers are smooth. Red-tailed hawks also display many aerial behaviors. In the talon-drop, during courtship, they swoop down trying to touch one another with their talons. Undulating-flight is an up and down movement that is mainly used in territorial display. In the dive-display, the bird performs a steep dive. This display signals that his territory is occupied.

Red-tailed hawks have excellent vision. This allows them to see prey movements very far away.

What do they eat?

Red-tailed hawks feed on a wide variety of prey, using their powerful claws as weapons. Eighty to eighty-five percent of their diet consists of small rodents. Mammals as large as eastern cottontail rabbits may also taken. Reptiles and other birds make up the rest of the diet. Male red-winged blackbirds are common prey because they are so visible when guarding their nests. Red-tailed hawks do most of their hunting from a perch. They are not known to store food. (Preston and Beane, 1993)

  • Primary Diet
  • carnivore
    • eats terrestrial vertebrates
  • Animal Foods
  • birds
  • mammals
  • reptiles

What eats them and how do they avoid being eaten?

Adult red-tailed hawks are large formidable birds, and have few predators. Most predation on this species occurs to eggs and nestlings. Great horned owls are known predators of red-tailed hawk nestlings. Corvids are known predators of eggs and nestlings. (Preston and Beane, 1993)

What roles do they have in the ecosystem?

Red-tailed hawks play an important role in local ecosystems by helping to control the populations of small mammals, including rodents and rabbits. They also provide habitat for some small bird species, including house sparrows, that live in active red-tailed hawk nests.

Some smaller bird species mob hawks. Red-tailed hawks also steal food and have food stolen by other large birds, including golden eagles, bald eagles and ferruginous hawks. (Preston and Beane, 1993)

  • Ecosystem Impact
  • creates habitat
Commensal or parasitic species (or larger taxonomic groups) that use this species as a host

Do they cause problems?

There are no known negative effects of red-tailed hawks on humans.

How do they interact with us?

Red-tailed hawks help farmers by eating mice, moles and other rodents that disturb their crops.

  • Ways that people benefit from these animals:
  • controls pest population

Are they endangered?

Red-tailed hawks have extended their geographic range over the last 100 years. This expansion is probably due to expansion of red-tailed hawk habitat. As this new habitat continues to change, red-tailed hawk populations may decrease.

The greatest threats to red-tailed hawk populations are shootings, collisions with automobiles, and human activities near nests. Lead poisoning from eating food items that contain lead shot also kills a number of red-tailed hawks each year.

Red-tailed hawks are protected under the U.S. Migratory Bird Act and CITES Appendix II. (Preston and Beane, 1993)

Some more information...

Albinism is relatively common in red-tailed hawks.

Red-tailed hawks are considered to be a sign of good luck in the Mescalero Apache tradition (Louie Chavez, personal communication).

Contributors

Tanya Dewey (author), Animal Diversity Web, Kari Kirschbaum (editor), Animal Diversity Web.

Delena Arnold (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.

Glossary

Nearctic

living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.

World Map

acoustic

uses sound to communicate

agricultural

living in landscapes dominated by human agriculture.

altricial

young are born in a relatively underdeveloped state; they are unable to feed or care for themselves or locomote independently for a period of time after birth/hatching. In birds, naked and helpless after hatching.

arboreal

Referring to an animal that lives in trees; tree-climbing.

bilateral symmetry

having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends.

carnivore

an animal that mainly eats meat

chemical

uses smells or other chemicals to communicate

desert or dunes

in deserts low (less than 30 cm per year) and unpredictable rainfall results in landscapes dominated by plants and animals adapted to aridity. Vegetation is typically sparse, though spectacular blooms may occur following rain. Deserts can be cold or warm and daily temperates typically fluctuate. In dune areas vegetation is also sparse and conditions are dry. This is because sand does not hold water well so little is available to plants. In dunes near seas and oceans this is compounded by the influence of salt in the air and soil. Salt limits the ability of plants to take up water through their roots.

diurnal
  1. active during the day, 2. lasting for one day.
endothermic

animals that generate their own body heat through metabolic processes.

fertilization

union of egg and spermatozoan

forest

forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.

iteroparous

offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).

migratory

makes seasonal movements between breeding and wintering grounds

monogamous

Having one mate at a time.

motile

having the capacity to move from one place to another.

native range

the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.

oviparous

reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.

polymorphic

"many forms." A species is polymorphic if its individuals can be divided into two or more easily recognized groups, based on structure, color, or other similar characteristics. The term only applies when the distinct groups can be found in the same area; graded or clinal variation throughout the range of a species (e.g. a north-to-south decrease in size) is not polymorphism. Polymorphic characteristics may be inherited because the differences have a genetic basis, or they may be the result of environmental influences. We do not consider sexual differences (i.e. sexual dimorphism), seasonal changes (e.g. change in fur color), or age-related changes to be polymorphic. Polymorphism in a local population can be an adaptation to prevent density-dependent predation, where predators preferentially prey on the most common morph.

rainforest

rainforests, both temperate and tropical, are dominated by trees often forming a closed canopy with little light reaching the ground. Climbing plants are also abundant. There is plenty of moisture and rain, but may be somewhat seasonal.

riparian

Referring to something living or located adjacent to a waterbody (usually, but not always, a river or stream).

scrub forest

scrub forests develop in areas that experience dry seasons.

seasonal breeding

breeding is confined to a particular season

sexual

reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female

suburban

living in residential areas on the outskirts of large cities or towns.

tactile

uses touch to communicate

temperate

that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).

terrestrial

Living on the ground.

territorial

defends an area within the home range, occupied by a single animals or group of animals of the same species and held through overt defense, display, or advertisement

tropical

the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.

tropical savanna and grassland
savanna

A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome.

temperate grassland
urban

living in cities and large towns, landscapes dominated by human structures and activity.

visual

uses sight to communicate

References

Brett, James. 1986. The Mountain and the Migration: A Guide to Hawk Mountain. Cornell Press, Ithaca.

Brewer, Richard; Gail Mcpeek, Raymond Adams Jr. 1991. The Atlas of Breeding Birds of Michigan. Michigan State University, East Lansing.

Elphick, Johnathan. 1995. the Atlas of Bird Migration. Random House, New York.

Johnsgard, Paul. 1990. Hawks, Eagles, And Falcons of North America. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington.

Newton, Ian. 1990. Birds of Prey. Facts on File, New York.

Scholz, Floyd. 1993. Birds of Prey. Stack Pole Boods, Pennsylvania.

Stokes, David and Lillian. 1989. A Guide to Bird Behavior Vol.III. Little Brown and Company, New York.

http://www.raptor.cvm.umn.edu

Preston, C., R. Beane. 1993. Red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis). Pp. 1-24 in A Poole, F Gill, eds. The Birds of North America, Vol. 52. Washington DC and Philadelphia, PA: The Academy of Natural Sciences and The American Ornithologists' Union.

 
University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyNational Science Foundation

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Arnold, D. 2002. "Buteo jamaicensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 20, 2014 at http://www.biokids.umich.edu/accounts/Buteo_jamaicensis/

BioKIDS is sponsored in part by the Interagency Education Research Initiative. It is a partnership of the University of Michigan School of Education, University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, and the Detroit Public Schools. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant DRL-0628151.
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