House finches are small songbirds. Average adults are 14 cm long and weigh 19 to 22 g. Their wings are about 8.4 cm long and tails are about 6.6 cm long. Females are approximately 1.3 cm shorter than males. Males have rosy-pink throats and rumps. They have a red line over their eyes, their backs are lightly streaked in red, their abdomens are whitish and streaked with brown, and they have brown-streaked wings, sides, and tails. Females are brownish overall but may also have some pale red coloration. Young house finches look similar to adult females.
House Finches may be confused with Purple Finches. Purple Finches have a more reddish color on their upper parts and are not streaked on their abdomens.
House finches may be confused with purple finches. Purple finches have more reddish color on their upper parts and are not streaked on the abdomen (Farrand, Jr. 1988). (Farrand Jr., 1988; Palmer and Fowler, 1975)
The native range of house finches extends from Oregon, Idaho and northern Wyoming to California, New Mexico and Mexico, eastward to the western portions of Nebraska, Kansas and Texas. In the 1940's a shipment of house finches was introduced into Long Island, New York. After struggling to survive for several years the population eventually became established and has spread throughout the eastern portion of the United States coast. They now occur from southern Canada south to the Gulf of Mexico, throughout the eastern seaboard and as far west as the Mississippi river. These newly established eastern populations have since become migratory, and now spend winters in the southern parts of the United States. House finches have also been introduced to the Hawaiian Islands. (Farrand Jr., 1988; Hill, 1993; Palmer and Fowler, 1975)
House finches are found in open desert, desert grassland, chaparral, oak savannah, riparian areas, and open coniferous forests in the western United States. In their new range in the eastern United States, house finches are rarely found far from urban and suburban areas. (Farrand Jr., 1988; Hill, 1993)
House finches are monogamous (one male mates with one female). Males and females begin to look for mates in winter, and have formed breeding pairs by the time the breeding season begins. Males try to attract a female mate by performing courtship displays, such as the "butterfly flight". In the "butterfly flight", the male flies 20 to 30 m into the air and then slowly glides to a perch while singing a loud continuous song. Males also feed their mate (called courtship feeding) and guard their mate from other males.
Females seem to prefer males that have bright red feathers. The red color comes from the foods the male eats. A very red-colored male signals that he is healthy and a good forager, and that he would therefore be a good mate. (Hill, 1990; Hill, 1993)
House finches breed between March and August. A breeding pair may lay as many as 6 clutches of eggs in one summer, but they usually can only successfully raise up to 3 clutches. The female builds the nests, which are shallow and cup-shaped. They are made of grasses, hair, or other available fibers, and are built in shrubs, cactuses, tree cavities, buildings, on tree branches, or in bird boxes. The female lays 3 to 6 bluish or greenish-white eggs that have black spots near the large end. Each egg weighs approximately 2.4 g and takes about 13 or 14 days to hatch. The female does all of the incubation and broods the naked chicks for a few days after they hatch.
Both parents feed the nestlings and keep the nest clean by eating the fecal sacs made by the chicks. The nestlings leave the nest when they are 12 to 19 days old. The male keeps feeding the fledglings for about two weeks. The female builds a new nest and begins raising the next brood.
After they become independent, young house finches form large flocks. These young finches will be able to breed the next spring. (Palmer and Fowler, 1975)
The female incubates the eggs and broods the chicks after they hatch. The male brings food to the female but doesn't begin to help care for the chicks until a few days after they hatch. Both parents feed the chicks while they are in the nest. After the chicks leave the nest, the male usually continues to feed the chicks and the female begins building the nest for the next brood.
The oldest known house finch lived up to 11 years and 7 months in the wild. Most house finches probably live much shorter lives.
House Finches are active during the day. They are not territorial. In fact, they commonly occur in small groups or flocks and often nest close together. In groups, females are usually dominant over males.
In most areas, house finches stay in the same area year-round. However, some populations in the eastern United States migrate to warmer areas in winter.
We have no information on home range of this species at this time.
House finches use vocalizations and body signals to communicate. House finch calls are made up of "kweat" or "weet" sounds, and are used often as a way to remain in contact with a mate. The song of house finches is described as an ecstatic warble, but is not as rich as the song of purple finches. Most singing by males occurs during the first few hours after sunrise and the last few hours before sunset. Males sing to guard the female as she builds the nest. They also sing during courtship feeding and while the eggs are being incubated and the young are in the nest. Females sing during courtship feeding or mating. House Finches also communicate using visual cues, such as plumage coloration and stance of the body. (Farrand Jr., 1988; Hill, 1990; Palmer and Fowler, 1975)
These birds almost exclusively eat grains, seeds, buds and fruits. Common seeds eaten include thistle, dandelion, sunflower, and mistletoe. In the late summer, fruits, such as cherries and mulberries, are some of their favorites. House finches will also eat flower parts and do sometimes eat insects such as beetle larvae and plant lice, but these may be eaten incidentally with seeds.
Unlike other finches of the genus Carpodacus, house finches do forage on the ground. When feeding in open areas, house finches prefer to have high perches nearby and/or to feed in large flocks.
Predators of adult house finches include domestic cats, Cooper's hawks and sharp-shinned hawks. Blue jays, common grackles, common crows, eastern chipmunks, fox squirrels, rats, skunks , snakes, raccoons, and household cats are all predators of eggs and nestlings.
House finches are important seed predators and dispersers. Also, house finches provide a source of food for birds of prey, snakes, and other predators.
House finches can cause damage to orchards, including crops of peaches, apricots, plums, cherries and nectarines.
House finches are a welcome visitor to backyard bird feeders. They provide much pleasure to those who welcome their song and presence as an announcement of the arrival of spring.
House finches are common throughout their range. There are about 21,000,000 house finches in the world. Finches and many other species of birds are protected by the United States Migratory Bird Treaty Act. This means that they may not be captured or kept without a permit.
House Finches have had population fluctuations as a result of conjunctivitis and pox infections rather than predation. A finch that has this disease can be recognized by its swollen, runny, or crusty eyes. Mycoplasmal conjunctivitis often results in death. This disease can be reduced by making sure to keep bird feeders clean. (Palmer and Fowler, 1975)
Tanya Dewey (author), Animal Diversity Web.
Kari Kirschbaum (author, editor), Animal Diversity Web.
Janice Pappas (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
Farrand Jr., J. 1988. Eastern Birds; An Audubon Handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc..
Hill, G. 1990. Female house finches prefer colourful males: sexual selection for a condition-dependent trait. Animal Behaviour, 40: 563-572.
Hill, G. 1993. House Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus). Pp. 1-24 in A Poole, F Gill, eds. The Birds of North America, No. 46. Philadelphia: The Academy of Natural Sciences, Washington, D.C.: The American Ornithologists' Union.
Palmer, E., H. Fowler. 1975. Fieldbook of Natural History, 2nd edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.