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Hirudinea

What do they look like?

Leeches are segmented worms with suction cups at each end. Their bodies are flattened, much wider than they are thick. They are usually dark colored, often brown or sometimes black or dark green. Some species have no markings, others have spots and stripes. The smallest leeches grow no more than 5 mm, but some big species may get to be more than 25 cm long. Many leech species have one or more pairs of eyes visible on the top of their front end. Leech species that suck blood have sharp teeth. Predatory species may have teeth, or may have only crushing jaws.

  • Range length
    0.5 to 25.0 mm
    0.02 to 0.98 in

Where do they live?

Leeches are found all over the world, and there are hundreds of species. In Michigan there are at least 40 species, and probably more.

What kind of habitat do they need?

Most leech species are found in shallow, slow-moving freshwater, but some live in the oceans, and a few live in moist soil on land.

How do they grow?

Leeches lay eggs in cocoons, and the babies that hatch out look and behave like little adults. They don't change much as they grow, they just get bigger. Leeches that live in habitats that freeze or dry out during part of the year bury themselves in mud and stay dormant until the habitat improves. Leech growth rate is strongly affected by temperature and food supply. Most species can mature in a few weeks or months if conditions are good.

How long do they live?

Some leeches complete their life cycle in a few months, but many can live for several years.

How do they behave?

All leeches can crawl, and some are good swimmers. They search for prey by following the scent or touch of the animals they want to eat. When they first detect food, they extend their bodies and hold very still, probably to carefully sense their prey.

How do they communicate with each other?

Leeches have very poor vision (often they can only tell the strength of light), but are very sensitive to touch. They also have a strong sense of taste. They cannot hear, but are sometimes very sensitive to vibrations. They communicate with other leeches chemically, and by touch.

What do they eat?

Leeches are famous as blood-suckers. The species that feed on blood have special chemicals in their saliva that prevents blood-clotting. Many blood-feeding leeches attack only fish, a few attack any vertebrate (including people), and a few are specialists on another group of animals, like turtles or waterbirds. There are also lots of leech species that don't suck blood. They are predators, eating worms, snails, aquatic insects, and other invertebrates.

  • Primary Diet
  • carnivore
    • eats non-insect arthropods

What eats them and how do they avoid being eaten?

Most leeches hide while resting, staying in thick plant growth or hiding in mud. Many leech species are nocturnal, this helps them avoid predators and locate resting prey. If attacked, some species swim away as fast as they can, others go limp and "play dead," others curl into a ball and sink to the bottom. When parasitic leeches attach to their host, they sometimes select places that are hard for their host to reach

What roles do they have in the ecosystem?

Leeches are sometimes important members of aquatic food webs. They are mid-level consumers, eating smaller animals and in turn being eaten by larger predators.

Species (or larger taxonomic groups) used as hosts by this species
  • Turtles
  • Fish
  • Waterbirds
  • Amphibians

Do they cause problems?

Many leech species are parasites feeding on blood. Some will bite humans. Others may attack domesticated animals that are valuable to humans, such as ducks or fish.

  • Ways that these animals might be a problem for humans
  • injures humans
    • bites or stings

How do they interact with us?

Leeches are used in some medical procedures to remove excess blood from body parts that have been reattached after injury. Also, chemicals that leeches use to prevent blood-clotting have proved to be valuable medicines.

Are they endangered?

Most species of leeches are not in danger of extinction. Only one species, the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis, has been given legal protection. This species was found throughout Europe and western Asia, but has been so heavily collected for medical use and research that it is extinct in many parts of its range. It is listed in Appendix II of the CITES Treaty, and is listed as "Lower Risk" by the IUCN.

  • IUCN Red List [Link]
    Not Evaluated

Glossary

Arctic Ocean

the body of water between Europe, Asia, and North America which occurs mostly north of the Arctic circle.

Atlantic Ocean

the body of water between Africa, Europe, the southern ocean (above 60 degrees south latitude), and the western hemisphere. It is the second largest ocean in the world after the Pacific Ocean.

World Map

Australian

Living in Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania, New Guinea and associated islands.

World Map

Ethiopian

living in sub-Saharan Africa (south of 30 degrees north) and Madagascar.

World Map

Nearctic

living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.

World Map

Neotropical

living in the southern part of the New World. In other words, Central and South America.

World Map

Pacific Ocean

body of water between the southern ocean (above 60 degrees south latitude), Australia, Asia, and the western hemisphere. This is the world's largest ocean, covering about 28% of the world's surface.

Palearctic

living in the northern part of the Old World. In otherwords, Europe and Asia and northern Africa.

World Map

benthic

on or near the bottom of a body of water

bilateral symmetry

having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends.

bog

a wetland area rich in accumulated plant material and with acidic soils surrounding a body of open water. Bogs have a flora dominated by sedges, heaths, and sphagnum.

carnivore

an animal that mainly eats meat

coastal

the nearshore aquatic habitats near a coast, or shoreline.

crepuscular

active at dawn and dusk

diurnal
  1. active during the day, 2. lasting for one day.
drug

a substance used for the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease

female parental care

parental care is carried out by females

fertilization

union of egg and spermatozoan

forest

forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.

freshwater

mainly lives in water that is not salty.

internal fertilization

fertilization takes place within the female's body

iteroparous

offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).

male parental care

parental care is carried out by males

marsh

marshes are wetland areas often dominated by grasses and reeds.

motile

having the capacity to move from one place to another.

native range

the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.

nocturnal

active during the night

oceanic islands

islands that are not part of continental shelf areas, they are not, and have never been, connected to a continental land mass, most typically these are volcanic islands.

oriental

found in the oriental region of the world. In other words, India and southeast Asia.

World Map

oviparous

reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.

pelagic

An aquatic biome consisting of the open ocean, far from land, does not include sea bottom (benthic zone).

polar

the regions of the earth that surround the north and south poles, from the north pole to 60 degrees north and from the south pole to 60 degrees south.

rainforest

rainforests, both temperate and tropical, are dominated by trees often forming a closed canopy with little light reaching the ground. Climbing plants are also abundant. There is plenty of moisture and rain, but may be somewhat seasonal.

saltwater or marine

mainly lives in oceans, seas, or other bodies of salt water.

seasonal breeding

breeding is confined to a particular season

sedentary

remains in the same area

solitary

lives alone

swamp

a wetland area that may be permanently or intermittently covered in water, often dominated by woody vegetation.

temperate

that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).

terrestrial

Living on the ground.

tropical

the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.

year-round breeding

breeding takes place throughout the year

 
University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyNational Science Foundation

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BioKIDS is sponsored in part by the Interagency Education Research Initiative. It is a partnership of the University of Michigan School of Education, University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, and the Detroit Public Schools. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant DRL-0628151.
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