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red-breasted merganser

Mergus serrator

What do they look like?

Red-breasted mergansers are large diving ducks with long, thin bills lined with serrated edges to help in capturing fish prey. Males are larger than females. Lengths range from 51 to 64 cm and weights from 800 to 1350 g. In their breeding plumage, males are more colorful, with dark greenish heads, a white collar, brown-speckled breasts, steel-gray flanks, and greenish-black backs that are bordered by a white patch. Both females and males have a double crest of plumes at the back of their heads. Females are grayish brown, with a small, white wing bar, a whitish breast with gray speckles, and the feathers on the head are reddish brown. The bill and legs are reddish-orange and the bill has a black tip. Females stays the same throughout the year and immature birds resemble females. Males in the non-breeding season resemble females but have wider, white wing bars.

  • Sexual Dimorphism
  • male larger
  • male more colorful
  • Range mass
    800 to 1350 g
    28.19 to 47.58 oz
  • Range length
    51 to 64 cm
    20.08 to 25.20 in

Where do they live?

Red-breasted mergansers are found throughout much of the northern hemisphere. They have separate breeding and wintering ranges, although they are found year-round in some northern, coastal areas. In the Americas they breed from Alaska throughout northern Canada to the Atlantic ocean and into the northern United States: Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, and Maine. They breed in Greenland and Iceland and in Eurasia from the Faroe Islands, Ireland, and Scotland through Scandinavia, northern Russia and Asia to Siberia and the Kamchatka Peninsula. Red-breasted mergansers winter in coastal areas, including the Atlantic, Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, Great Lakes coasts, and other large, inland waterways as far south as northern Mexico in the Americas and the Baltic, North, Mediterranean, Black, Caspian, and Aral Seas in Eurasia.

What kind of habitat do they need?

Red-breasted mergansers are found on wetlands and open bodies of freshwater, brackish, or saltwater. In summer they are found in northern areas, usually coasts, lakes, and rivers near conifer forests or tundra. In winter and during migration they are found on protected waters along sea coasts and large, inland lakes and rivers. Red-breasted mergansers forage mainly in shallow waters with submergent vegetation and abundant fish prey.

How do they reproduce?

Red-breasted mergansers form mated pairs each season. Most pair bonds form during spring migration, starting in March. Males use a courtship display and call to attract females. Usually several males display around a single female in an attempt to win her favor.

Red-breasted mergansers breed relatively late in the season. Mated pairs arrive on the breeding grounds in May and lay eggs in early June. Young hatch in July and can fly by September or October. Females choose nests on land close to water, usually in dense vegetation or under objects. Nests are usually within 23 m of the water. Females start the nest as a scrape, but gradually add grass and feathers throughout incubation. They lay from 5 to 24 beige to gray eggs. Incubation is generally for 30 to 31 days, young hatch synchronously. Young fledge at 60 to 65 days after hatching. Because they breed relatively late, second clutches are unlikely. Most red-breasted mergansers mate first in their third year, although they are mature in their second year.

  • How often does reproduction occur?
    Red-breasted mergansers breed once yearly.
  • Breeding season
    Red-breasted mergansers breed in May and June.
  • Range eggs per season
    5 to 24
  • Average eggs per season
    9.5
  • Range time to hatching
    30 to 31 days
  • Range fledging age
    60 to 65 days
  • Range time to independence
    7 (high) weeks
  • Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
    2 to 3 years
  • Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
    3 years
  • Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
    2 to 3 years

Females incubate the eggs and brood and care for the young until they abandon them within a few weeks after hatching. Males abandon females on the nest soon after she begins incubating the eggs. (Titman, 1999)

  • Parental Investment
  • precocial
  • pre-fertilization
    • provisioning
    • protecting
      • female
  • pre-hatching/birth
    • provisioning
      • female
    • protecting
      • female
  • pre-weaning/fledging
    • protecting
      • female

How long do they live?

The oldest recorded red-breasted merganser was 9 years and 4 months old. Like many animals, most hatchlings do not survive through their first year. Up to 50% of hatchlings die because of exposure to cold weather, another 25% are preyed on.

  • Range lifespan
    Status: wild
    9.33 (high) years

How do they behave?

Red-breasted mergansers migrate between summer breeding areas and areas where they spend the winter. They are active during the day. They have rapid, efficient flight and can swim and dive well by propelling themselves with their feet. They cannot walk well because their feet are so far back on the body. Red-breasted mergansers spend about 50% of their waking hours foraging. They are highly social and are usually seen in groups, except during breeding season, when pairs separate to mate and nest. They migrate in spring in small groups of 5 to 15, but in their fall migration they may gather in large groups of up to 15,000. They do not defend territories, even during the breeding season. Red-breasted mergansers are commonly seen foraging and nesting near other bird species.

Home Range

Red-breasted mergansers are gregarious and do not defend territories. Females return to nest in the area where they were hatched. (Titman, 1999)

How do they communicate with each other?

Red-breasted mergansers use visual displays and calls during the breeding season to attract mates. They also produce alarm calls that sound like "garr" or "grack."

What do they eat?

Red-breasted mergansers eat mainly small fishes (10 to 15 cm long) and crustaceans. Their diet is usually made up of more than 75% small fish, with less than 25% made up of crustaceans and other aquatic animals, including insects, worms, and amphibians. They seem to prefer foraging in shallow water, but they will hunt wherever prey is abundant. Red-breasted mergansers forage in several different ways. They float at the surface, looking underwater as they go, they dive in deep or shallow water to search for prey, or they dive in formation with other red-breasted mergansers to herd schooling prey. Preferred fish prey include killifishes, sticklebacks, Atlantic salmon, sculpins, herring and their eggs, salmon eggs, silversides, and blueback herring.

  • Animal Foods
  • amphibians
  • fish
  • eggs
  • aquatic or marine worms
  • aquatic crustaceans

What eats them and how do they avoid being eaten?

A wide variety of predators feed on eggs and nestlings of red-breasted mergansers, including common ravens, great black-backed gulls, herring gulls, parasitic jaegers, and mink. Adults have been taken by great horned owls and gyrfalcons. They may also be taken by red foxes and snowy owls. (Titman, 1999)

  • These animal colors help protect them
  • cryptic

What roles do they have in the ecosystem?

Red-breasted mergansers are important predators of small fish in their wetland habitats. Snowy egrets, Bonaparte's, and ring-billed gulls will wait at the surface to grab fish scared by merganser foraging. Red-breasted mergansers are also attracted to areas where gulls are feeding on schooling fish.

Species (or larger taxonomic groups) that are mutualists with this species
Commensal or parasitic species (or larger taxonomic groups) that use this species as a host

Do they cause problems?

Red-breasted mergansers are sometimes attracted to fish hatcheries and important salmon spawning streams. They are sometimes persecuted because of their predation on young salmon.

  • Ways that these animals might be a problem for humans
  • crop pest

How do they interact with us?

Red-breasted mergansers are occasionally hunted, but they are not a common game bird. (Titman, 1999)

  • Ways that people benefit from these animals:
  • food

Are they endangered?

Red-breasted mergansers have a wide distribution and large populations, they are not considered currently threatened. Some populations may be threatened by wetland destruction and contamination by pesticides and lead. They are also captured in fishing nets sometimes.

Some more information...

Contributors

Tanya Dewey (author), Animal Diversity Web.

Glossary

Arctic Ocean

the body of water between Europe, Asia, and North America which occurs mostly north of the Arctic circle.

Atlantic Ocean

the body of water between Africa, Europe, the southern ocean (above 60 degrees south latitude), and the western hemisphere. It is the second largest ocean in the world after the Pacific Ocean.

World Map

Nearctic

living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.

World Map

Pacific Ocean

body of water between the southern ocean (above 60 degrees south latitude), Australia, Asia, and the western hemisphere. This is the world's largest ocean, covering about 28% of the world's surface.

Palearctic

living in the northern part of the Old World. In otherwords, Europe and Asia and northern Africa.

World Map

acoustic

uses sound to communicate

bilateral symmetry

having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends.

brackish water

areas with salty water, usually in coastal marshes and estuaries.

carnivore

an animal that mainly eats meat

chemical

uses smells or other chemicals to communicate

coastal

the nearshore aquatic habitats near a coast, or shoreline.

cryptic

having markings, coloration, shapes, or other features that cause an animal to be camouflaged in its natural environment; being difficult to see or otherwise detect.

diurnal
  1. active during the day, 2. lasting for one day.
endothermic

animals that generate their own body heat through metabolic processes.

estuarine

an area where a freshwater river meets the ocean and the fresh and saltwater mixes

food

A substance that provides both nutrients and energy to a living thing.

forest

forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.

freshwater

mainly lives in water that is not salty.

holarctic

World Map

Found in northern North America and northern Europe or Asia.

iteroparous

offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).

migratory

makes seasonal movements between breeding and wintering grounds

monogamous

Having one mate at a time.

motile

having the capacity to move from one place to another.

natatorial

specialized for swimming

native range

the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.

oviparous

reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.

piscivore

an animal that mainly eats fish

polygynandrous

the kind of polygamy in which a female pairs with several males, each of which also pairs with several different females.

saltwater or marine

mainly lives in oceans, seas, or other bodies of salt water.

seasonal breeding

breeding is confined to a particular season

sexual

reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female

social

associates with others of its species; forms social groups.

tactile

uses touch to communicate

taiga

this biome is characterized by large expanses of coniferous forest, there is an extended cold season and heavy snowfall.

temperate

that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).

tundra

A terrestrial biome found in very cold places -- either close to polar regions or high on mountains. Part of the soil stays frozen all year. Few kinds of plants grow here, and these are low mats or shrubs not trees. The growing season is short.

visual

uses sight to communicate

young precocial

young are relatively well-developed when born

References

Titman, R. 1999. Red-breasted merganser (Mergus serrator). The Birds of North America Online, 443: 1-20. Accessed April 02, 2009 at http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna/species/443.

 
University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyNational Science Foundation

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Dewey, T. 2009. "Mergus serrator" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 21, 2014 at http://www.biokids.umich.edu/accounts/Mergus_serrator/

BioKIDS is sponsored in part by the Interagency Education Research Initiative. It is a partnership of the University of Michigan School of Education, University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, and the Detroit Public Schools. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant DRL-0628151.
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