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house mice

Mus musculus

What do they look like?

House mice are from 65 to 95 mm long from the tip of their nose to the end of their body, their tails are 60 to 105 mm long. Their fur ranges in color from light brown to black, and they generally have white or buffy bellys. They have long tails that have very little fur and have circular rows of scales. House mice tend to have longer tails and darker fur when living closely with humans. They range from 12 to 30 g in weight. Many domestic forms of mice have been developed that vary in color from white to black and with spots.

  • Sexual Dimorphism
  • sexes alike
  • Range mass
    12.0 to 30.0 g
    0.42 to 1.06 oz
  • Range length
    65.0 to 95.0 mm
    2.56 to 3.74 in
  • Average basal metabolic rate
    0.271 W
    AnAge

Where do they live?

House mice may originally be from Europe and Asia, from the Mediterranean region to China, but they are now distributed throughout the world by humans and live as a human commensal.

What kind of habitat do they need?

House mice generally live close to humans, in places like houses and barns. Some individuals spend the summer in fields and move into barns and houses with the onset of cool autumn weather. Because house mice take advantage of human shelters and food, they have been able to live in areas like deserts where, without humans, they would not be able to live.

How do they reproduce?

House mice have a polygynous mating system, where each male mates with multiple females. Males sing when they smell females who are ready to mate, which might attract females.

House mice are able to reproduce throughout the year, often having 5-10 litters each year when conditions are favorable. Pregnancy lasts for 19 to 21 days and 5 to 6 young are born per litter, though there can be as many as 12. Young weigh about 1 gram at birth and are naked, blind, and helpless. At 10 days old they have fur and at 14 days old they open their eyes. The young are nursed for 21 days and reach adulthood at 5 to 7 weeks old.

  • Breeding season
    Throughout the year
  • Range number of offspring
    3.0 to 12.0
  • Average number of offspring
    5.0
  • Average number of offspring
    7
    AnAge
  • Range gestation period
    21.0 (high) days
  • Average weaning age
    21.0 days
  • Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
    5.0 to 7.0 weeks
  • Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
    5.0 to 7.0 weeks

Young mice are cared for in their mother's nest until they reach 21 days old. Soon after this most young mice leave their mother's territory, though young females are more likely to stay nearby.

  • Parental Investment
  • altricial
  • pre-fertilization
    • protecting
      • female
  • pre-hatching/birth
    • provisioning
      • female
    • protecting
      • female
  • pre-weaning/fledging
    • provisioning
      • female
    • protecting
      • female

How long do they live?

If a house mouse is a pet, the average life span is about 2 years, but mutant and calorie-restricted captive individuals have lived for as long as 5 years. Wild-derived captive Mus musculus individuals have lived up to 4 years in captivity. In the wild, most mice do not live beyond 12-18 months.

  • Range lifespan
    Status: wild
    12.0 to 18.0 months
  • Range lifespan
    Status: captivity
    5.0 (high) years
  • Average lifespan
    Status: captivity
    2.0 years
  • Typical lifespan
    Status: wild
    12.0 to 18.0 months
  • Typical lifespan
    Status: captivity
    5 (high) years
  • Average lifespan
    Status: captivity
    2.0 years

How do they behave?

In the wild, house mice generally live in cracks in rocks or in walls or make underground tunnels. Their homes usually have several "rooms" for nesting and storage, and three or four exits. When living with humans, house mice nest in roofs, in woodpiles, storage areas, or any hidden spot near a source of food. They make their nests from rags, paper, or other soft substances. House mice are generally most active at night, although some are active during the day. House mice are quick runners (up to 8 miles per hour), good climbers, jumpers, and also swim well. Despite this, they rarely travel far from their homes. House mice are generally considered both territorial and colonial when living near humans. Within a group that lives together, there is usually one male with several females and their babies. Among the females, there is a ranking system with one being at the top and the others below her. Family members tend to be kind to each other, but will defend their home against outsiders.

How do they communicate with each other?

House mice have excellent vision and hearing, a keen sense of smell, and use their whiskers to feel air movements and surface textures. House mice often squeak to each other in the nest. They use pheromones and other smells to communicate with each other about social dominance, family composition, and reproductive readiness. It was recently discovered that male mice produce complex, ultrasonic songs in response to female sex pheromones. (Holy and Guo, 2005)

What do they eat?

In the wild, house mice eat many kinds of plant matter, including seeds, roots, leaves, and stems. They will also eat insects (beetles, caterpillars, and cockroaches) and meat if it is available. If house mice live near humans, they will eat any human food that is available as well as glue, soap, and other household materials. Many mice will gather and then store their food for later use.

  • Animal Foods
  • carrion
  • insects
  • terrestrial non-insect arthropods
  • Plant Foods
  • leaves
  • roots and tubers
  • wood, bark, or stems
  • seeds, grains, and nuts
  • fruit

What eats them and how do they avoid being eaten?

House mice are eaten by a wide variety of small predators throughout the world, including cats, foxes, weasels, ferrets, mongooses, large lizards, snakes, hawks, falcons, and owls. House mice try to avoid predation by keeping out of the open and by being fast. They are also capable of reproducing very rapidly, which means that populations can recover quickly from predation.

What roles do they have in the ecosystem?

Where house mice are abundant they can consume huge quantities of grains, making these foods unavailable to other (perhaps native) animals. House mice are also important prey items for many small predators.

Species (or larger taxonomic groups) used as hosts by this species
  • Humans

Do they cause problems?

House mice contribute to the spread of several human and animal diseases, including bubonic plague. They also carry a virus that may contribute to breast cancer in humans. Where abundant, house mice consume large quantities of crops and contaminate foods with their droppings. They can destroy woodwork, furniture, upholstery, and clothing.

  • Ways that these animals might be a problem for humans
  • injures humans
    • carries human disease
  • crop pest
  • household pest

How do they interact with us?

House mice have been widely used as research animals in medicine and genetics, and they have contributed to advances in these areas. They are also popular pets and may sometimes act to control insect pests.

  • Ways that people benefit from these animals:
  • pet trade
  • research and education
  • controls pest population

Are they endangered?

There are no problems with the numbers of house mice in the world. In some areas, there can be as many as 10 mice per square meter. Overall, populations are doing extremely well, this is helped by human construction of houses, barns, and other structures.

Some more information...

Waltzing, shaking, and singing mice are other names for certain types of house mice. Some are known as singing mice because of the twitterings they emit while in the nest. Some forms, known as shaking or waltzing mice, move erratically, which is how they get their name.

Contributors

Allison Poor (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.

Liz Ballenger (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.

Glossary

Australian

Living in Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania, New Guinea and associated islands.

World Map

Ethiopian

living in sub-Saharan Africa (south of 30 degrees north) and Madagascar.

World Map

Nearctic

living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.

World Map

Neotropical

living in the southern part of the New World. In other words, Central and South America.

World Map

Palearctic

living in the northern part of the Old World. In otherwords, Europe and Asia and northern Africa.

World Map

acoustic

uses sound to communicate

altricial

young are born in a relatively underdeveloped state; they are unable to feed or care for themselves or locomote independently for a period of time after birth/hatching. In birds, naked and helpless after hatching.

bilateral symmetry

having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends.

carrion

flesh of dead animals.

chemical

uses smells or other chemicals to communicate

cosmopolitan

having a worldwide distribution. Found on all continents (except maybe Antarctica) and in all biogeographic provinces; or in all the major oceans (Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific.

dominance hierarchies

ranking system or pecking order among members of a long-term social group, where dominance status affects access to resources or mates

endothermic

animals that generate their own body heat through metabolic processes.

fertilization

union of egg and spermatozoan

forest

forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.

internal fertilization

fertilization takes place within the female's body

introduced

referring to animal species that have been transported to and established populations in regions outside of their natural range, usually through human action.

iteroparous

offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).

motile

having the capacity to move from one place to another.

native range

the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.

nocturnal

active during the night

oceanic islands

islands that are not part of continental shelf areas, they are not, and have never been, connected to a continental land mass, most typically these are volcanic islands.

omnivore

an animal that mainly eats all kinds of things, including plants and animals

oriental

found in the oriental region of the world. In other words, India and southeast Asia.

World Map

pet trade

the business of buying and selling animals for people to keep in their homes as pets.

pheromones

chemicals released into air or water that are detected by and responded to by other animals of the same species

polygynous

having more than one female as a mate at one time

scrub forest

scrub forests develop in areas that experience dry seasons.

sedentary

remains in the same area

sexual

reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female

social

associates with others of its species; forms social groups.

stores or caches food

places a food item in a special place to be eaten later. Also called "hoarding"

tactile

uses touch to communicate

temperate

that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).

terrestrial

Living on the ground.

territorial

defends an area within the home range, occupied by a single animals or group of animals of the same species and held through overt defense, display, or advertisement

ultrasound

uses sound above the range of human hearing for either navigation or communication or both

visual

uses sight to communicate

viviparous

reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female.

year-round breeding

breeding takes place throughout the year

References

Jackson, H.H.T. 1961. Mammals of Wisconsin. The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wisconsin.

Kurta, A. 1995. Mammals of the Great Lakes Region. The University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Nowak, R.M. and J.L Paradiso. 1983. Walker's Mammals of the World. 4th edition. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland.

Holy, T., Z. Guo. 2005. Ultrasonic songs of male mice. Public Library of Science, Biology, 3/12. Accessed November 02, 2005 at http://biology.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1371/journal.pbio.0030386.

Indik, S., W. Günzburg, B. Salmons, F. Rouault. 2005. Mouse mammary tumor virus infects human cells. Cancer Research, 65 (15): 6651-6659.

Sage, R., W. Atchley, E. Capanna. 1993. House mice as models in systematic biology. Systematic Biology, 42(4): 523-561.

Stewart, T., R. Sage, A. Stewart, D. Cameron. 2000. Breast cancer incidence highest in the range of one species of house mouse, Mus domesticus. British Journal of Cancer, 82(2): 446-451.

 
University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyNational Science Foundation

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Ballenger, L. 1999. "Mus musculus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 17, 2014 at http://www.biokids.umich.edu/accounts/Mus_musculus/

BioKIDS is sponsored in part by the Interagency Education Research Initiative. It is a partnership of the University of Michigan School of Education, University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, and the Detroit Public Schools. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant DRL-0628151.
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