Pygmy shrews are the smallest American mammals, with an average weight of 3 g. They are 80 to 91 mm long, but 27 to 32 mm of that length is the tail. The head is narrow, the nose pointed, and there are obvious whiskers. The eyes are are covered by short, soft fur, so they are hard to see. The fur is gray-brown in the summer and gray in the winter. The belly is a lighter gray color than the back. (Kurta, 1995)
Pygmy shrews are found in the northern forests of North America. They are found from Alaska to the east coast of Canada south of the tundra. They can be found as far south as the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, and live in some parts of the Appalachian Mountains of the northeastern United States. (Baker, 1983; Kurta, 1995; Nowak, 1999)
Pygmy shrews live in a wide variety of habitats. They are found in both evergreen and hardwood forests, swamps, grassy clearings, bogs, and floodplains. Individuals have been found living in sphagnum moss, moist soil, mammalian tunnel networks, insect tunnel networks, leaf litter, root systems, and stumps. (Baker, 1983)
Little is known about the reproductive habits of these animals.
Pygmy shrews seem to mate from June to August. Pregnancy lasts about 18 days. Females give birth to one litter of 3 to 8 young per year. The length of dependence on the mother is unknown. Juveniles are able to breed in their second summer. (Baker, 1983; Kurta, 1995)
We don't know much about reproduction in shrews. Because they are mammals, we know that the mother feeds her babies milk. We do not know how long the young shrews rely on their mother's milk, how quickly they grow, what othe types of care they may get from their mother, or what role males may play in parental care.
One male shrew is known to have lived 11 months after hsi capture. It is not known how old he was at the time of capture. Most shrews captured are young, so it is reasonable to assume that not many shrews grow to be very old. It is likely that the maximum lifespan of pygmy shrews in the wild is about two years. (Baker, 1983)
Pygmy shrews are good at digging in soft, soil and leaf litter. They sometimes use tunnel networks made by other animals to find food. In captivity, pygmy shrews active for about 3 minutes at a time. These active times are followed by a short rest. Pygmy shrews search ofor food using their senses of smell and hearing. When frightened, they release a smelly odor from the glands in their sides. Pygmy shrews in captivity have been known to attack and kill one another. These animals are probably active both day and night. (Baker, 1983; Kurta, 1995)
The size of home ranges is not known for certain. They may occupy areas about 0.2 ha in size at any given time, but during their lifetimes may move over an area as large as 1.8 ha. (Baker, 1983)
Pygmy shrews make sharp squeaks, low purrs, and high-pitched whistling sounds. These are part of their communication, although human researchers do not know what these calls mean to the shrews.
Because pygmy shrews release strong smells from scent glands when they are frightened or excited, it is likely that scents are used in communication. Smells may help individual shrews identify mates.
Physical contact probably occurs between rivals, mates, and between mothers and their offspring. Information may be communicated between shrews at such times.
Because of their poor eyesight, pygmy shrews probably don't use a lot of visual signals in communication (Baker, 1983)
Pygmy shrews usually eat insects and other invertebrates. The diet includes ants, flies, spiders, earthworms, beetles, grubs, and caterpillars. Captive pygmy shrews have been known to eat dead vertebrates, such as masked shrews, red-backed voles and white-footed mice. (Baker, 1983; Kurta, 1995; Nowak, 1999)
The musky secretions which ooze from flank glands when a shrew is upset seem to deter most predators. However, there are reports of pygmy shrews being taken by brook trout, garter snakes, hawks, and house cats. (Baker, 1983)
Pygmy shrews probably have significant impact on their ecosystems. As predators, they decrease the populations of their insect prey. They also provide food for animals which eat them.
Little information is available regarding the negative impact pygmy shrews have on humans. They may prey on beneficial organisms, such as earthworms. However, Baker (1983) suggests that these small mammals have no real impact on humans. (Baker, 1983)
The extent to which these animals affect humans is unknown. They potentially affect pest populations through predation. However, Baker (1983) suggests that there is no real impact of these animals on humans. (Baker, 1983)
It is unclear whether low capture rates for pygmy shrews indicates low population densities of these animals. The low capture rates may be caused by inadequate trapping techniques.
Because of the low capture rate of S. hoyi in the field, relatively little information is available regarding the natural history of this species. Most of the information available is fragmentary and anecdotal.
Nancy Shefferly (editor), Animal Diversity Web.
Matthew Wund (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Phil Myers (editor), Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
uses sound to communicate
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends.
a wetland area rich in accumulated plant material and with acidic soils surrounding a body of open water. Bogs have a flora dominated by sedges, heaths, and sphagnum.
an animal that mainly eats meat
flesh of dead animals.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
active at dawn and dusk
animals that generate their own body heat through metabolic processes.
union of egg and spermatozoan
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
Referring to a burrowing life-style or behavior, specialized for digging or burrowing.
An animal that eats mainly insects or spiders.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
This terrestrial biome includes summits of high mountains, either without vegetation or covered by low, tundra-like vegetation.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
active during the night
Referring to something living or located adjacent to a waterbody (usually, but not always, a river or stream).
breeding is confined to a particular season
remains in the same area
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
uses touch to communicate
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
uses sight to communicate
reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female.
Baker, R. 1983. Michigan Mammals. Detroit: Michigan State University Press.
Kurta, A. 1995. Mammals of the Great Lakes Region. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Nowak, R. 1999. Walker's Mammals of the World, Sixth Edition. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.