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masked shrew

Sorex cinereus

What do they look like?

Masked shrews are the second smallest shrew species in North America, pygmy shrews are slightly smaller. Male and female masked shrews are about the same size and color. The fur of their back is almost uniformly brown and their underparts are greyish-white. Their tail is brown above and lighter below, with a black tip. Fur color tends to be darker in the winter. Tail length averages 39.9mm, almost half of their total body length. Average body length of adults is 99 mm. Young are born hairless and with fused eyelids, they weigh from 0.2 to 0.3 grams and are 15 to 17 mm long including a 3 mm long tail.

  • Sexual Dimorphism
  • sexes alike
  • Range mass
    2.5 to 4.0 g
    0.09 to 0.14 oz
  • Average length
    99.0 mm
    3.90 in
  • Average basal metabolic rate
    0.238 W
    AnAge

Where do they live?

Masked shrews are the most widely distributed shrew in North American. They are found throughout the northern United States, most of Canada, and Alaska. They do not occur on Vancouver Island, the Queen Charlotte Islands, in tundra habitats, on arctic islands, or in extreme northern Quebec.

What kind of habitat do they need?

Masked shrews occupy a wide variety of habitats. They are found in open and closed forests, meadows, along river banks, lake shores, and willow thickets. Preferred habitats are always close to water and the largest numbers of masked shrews can be found in moist environments. Masked shrews also do well in disturbed habitats such as those disturbed by fire or logging. The average home range size is 0.6 hectares.

  • These animals are found in the following types of habitat
  • temperate

How long do they live?

Masked shrews probably do not live much past 1 to 2 years old, most probably die before reaching adulthood.

  • Typical lifespan
    Status: wild
    2.0 (high) years

How do they behave?

Masked shrews are most active after dark, when 85 per cent of activity occurs. They are especially active when there has been a rainfall or on very dark nights. Their primary activity is hunting. Masked shrews hunt mainly on the ground but may also climb into low vegetation and shrubs. They run quickly, can jump to 10-15 cm high, and dig in loose soils.

How do they communicate with each other?

Little is known of communication in masked shrews. They have an excellent sense of smell and can see fairly well. They use their sensitive whiskers to find their way around and detect prey. Masked shrews also probably squeak and hiss as a way of communicating.

What do they eat?

Because masked shrews inhabit a wide range there is a lot of variability in their diet. Ants represent 50% of the food source for masked shrews in Michigan. In other areas they eat mostly insect larvae. In general, masked shrews consume a variety of invertebrates including insect larvae, ants, beetles, crickets, grasshoppers, spiders, harvestmen, centipedes, slugs, and snails. They are also important predators of forest insect pests such as jack pine budworms and larch sawflies. Seeds and fungi are also eaten occasionally.

  • Primary Diet
  • carnivore
    • eats non-insect arthropods

What eats them and how do they avoid being eaten?

Masked shrews avoid being preyed upon by staying under cover and being active mostly at night, they are rarely seen.

What roles do they have in the ecosystem?

Masked shrews can be very abundant in the communities in which they live. They can have a dramatic impact on insect communities because they have to consume such large quantities of insects. They are also important prey items for many small predators.

Do they cause problems?

The negative impacts of masked shrews are unknown. They may affect populations of some beneficial organisms or inhibit reproduction of some plants by consuming seeds.

How do they interact with us?

The extent to which masked shrew populations affect humans is unknown. However, they have a significant impact on populations of insect pests and are important members of communities.

  • Ways that people benefit from these animals:
  • controls pest population

Are they endangered?

Masked shrews are common and widespread.

Contributors

Wendy Lee (author), University of Toronto.

Glossary

Nearctic

living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.

World Map

altricial

young are born in a relatively underdeveloped state; they are unable to feed or care for themselves or locomote independently for a period of time after birth/hatching. In birds, naked and helpless after hatching.

bilateral symmetry

having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends.

carnivore

an animal that mainly eats meat

chemical

uses smells or other chemicals to communicate

endothermic

animals that generate their own body heat through metabolic processes.

female parental care

parental care is carried out by females

fertilization

union of egg and spermatozoan

forest

forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.

internal fertilization

fertilization takes place within the female's body

iteroparous

offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).

marsh

marshes are wetland areas often dominated by grasses and reeds.

motile

having the capacity to move from one place to another.

native range

the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.

nocturnal

active during the night

rainforest

rainforests, both temperate and tropical, are dominated by trees often forming a closed canopy with little light reaching the ground. Climbing plants are also abundant. There is plenty of moisture and rain, but may be somewhat seasonal.

seasonal breeding

breeding is confined to a particular season

sedentary

remains in the same area

sexual

reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female

solitary

lives alone

swamp

a wetland area that may be permanently or intermittently covered in water, often dominated by woody vegetation.

tactile

uses touch to communicate

temperate

that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).

viviparous

reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female.

References

Boyd, S., K. Carlin-Morgan, B. Coslick, A. Edwards, M. Flood. June 1, 2000. "Mammals: Sorex cinereus, S. fumeus, S. longirostris & Microsorex hoyi" (On-line). Accessed October 6, 2000 at http://museum.nhm.uga.edu/~GA Wildlife/.

Nagorsen, D. 1996. Opossums, Shrews and Moles of British Columbia. UBC Press/Vancouver: Royal British Columbia Museum Handbook ISSN 118-5114.

Pagels, J., K. Uthus, H. Duval. 1994. The Masked Shrew, Sorex cinereus, in a Relictual Habitat of the Southern Applachian Mountains. Pp. 103-109 in J Merritt, G Kirkland, R Rose, eds. Advances in the Biology of Shrews. Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Museum of Natural History Special Publication No. 18.

Wilson, D., S. Ruff. 1999. The Smithsonian Book of North American Mammals. Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press.

van Zyll de Jong, C. 1983. Handbook of Canadian Mammals. vol. 1, Marsupials and Insectivores. Ottawa, Canada: National Museums of Canada.

 
University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyNational Science Foundation

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Lee, W. 2001. "Sorex cinereus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 25, 2014 at http://www.biokids.umich.edu/accounts/Sorex_cinereus/

BioKIDS is sponsored in part by the Interagency Education Research Initiative. It is a partnership of the University of Michigan School of Education, University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, and the Detroit Public Schools. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant DRL-0628151.
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