Downy woodpeckers are smallest woodpeckers in North America. They are 14.5 to 17 cm long and weigh 21 to 28 g. They are mostly black-and-white. Their back is black with white down the center and their wings are black with white spots. Their head is black with a white stripe above and below each eye, and their tail is black with white outer feathers. Their chest and belly are white to grayish.
Downy woodpeckers have whitish tufts at the base of their thick, black bills. Males and females are look the same, except that males have a small red patch at the back of their neck. Young males usually have a red patch on the forehead instead of their neck. Young females do not have any red at all.
Downy woodpeckers are easily confused with hairy woodpeckers (Picoides villosus). Hairy woodpeckers look very similar to downys, but they are larger. Downy woodpeckers also have a shorter, stubbier bill (shorter than the length of their head) than hairy woodpeckers. Downy woodpeckers have much quieter calls that hairy woodpeckers, and usually forage on smaller plants.
There are eight subspecies of downy woodpeckers. (Jackson and Ouellet, 2002)
Downy woodpeckers are native to the Nearctic Region. They are found throughout North America, from southeastern Alaska east to Newfoundland, and south to southern California and Florida. Most downy woodpeckers stay in the same area year-round. (Jackson and Ouellet, 2002)
In the northern part of their range, downy woodpeckers prefer open, deciduous forests and woodlands. This includes young, mixed forests of oak, hickory, beech, maple and hemlock. They are less common in conifer-dominated forests unless the forest has deciduous in the understory. Downy woodpeckers are also common in orchards, parks and in suburbs that have a lot of trees. In the south, downy woodpeckers prefer riparian woods or moist, aspen-willow stands. They are also found in the southern Rocky Mountains. (Jackson and Ouellet, 2002)
Downy woodpeckers are monogamous. Breeding pairs usually begin forming in late winter and early spring (January to March). Pairs usually stay together for the length of a summer, and may mate together for more than one year. (Jackson and Ouellet, 2002)
The male and female excavate a nest cavity together. The nest cavity is usually located in a tree limb. When the nest is complete, the female lays 3 to 8 eggs (average 4.8). She lays one egg each day. Both parents incubate the eggs. The male incubates at night and the adults take turns during the day. The eggs all hatch on the same day after 12 days of incubation.
This nestlings are altricial (helpless) when they hatch, but they develop very quickly. The parents brood them constantly for the first 4 days after hatching. Both parents also feed the chicks. The chicks leave the nest after 18 to 21 days. The parents continue to take care of the fledglings for at least three weeks. They feed them, lead them to food sources and warn them of potential predators. Most young downy woodpeckers are able to breed the next year. (Jackson and Ouellet, 2002)
Both parents incubate the eggs, keep the nest clean, feed the young and protect them from predators. The young remain with the parents for up to three weeks after fledging. (Jackson and Ouellet, 2002)
One wild downy woodpecker lived to be 11 years and 11 months old. Most downy woodpeckers probably do not live this long. (Jackson and Ouellet, 2002)
Downy woodpeckers are active during the day. They stay in the same general area year-round and do not migrate. They are solitary and territorial. Males defend a territory against other males, and females defend a territory against females. When an intruder enters a downy woodpecker's territory, the resident woodpecker uses threat displays, such as wing flicking, or fanning their tail, raising their crest and holding their bill high to try to drive the intruder away. If threat displays do not work, downy woodpeckers may attack the intruder, grappling with them in mid-air. (Jackson and Ouellet, 2002)
Home ranges range from from 0.02 to 0.12 square kilometers and vary with habitat quality (smaller home ranges are required in high-quality habitat). Home ranges are smaller during the nestling period, when adults need to remain near the nest. (Jackson and Ouellet, 2002)
Downy woodpeckers use calls and body signals to communicate. They produce a variety of sounds, including "pik", rattle, scolding, "wad", "chirp", squeak, screech, and distress calls. The "pik" call introduces the rattle call, and these are used during aggressive interactions. Short calls, the "wad" and "chirp", are uttered by young birds. A longer note call, the squeak, is also uttered by young downy woodpeckers. The screech and distress calls are used to signal alarm.
Drumming is a common non-vocal sound that downy woodpeckers use to communicate. This sound is used most often in late winter and spring> It is used to establish and defend a territory, to attract a mate, and to communicate between mates.
Downy woodpeckers also use body postures to communicate. Bill pointing and waving, wing flicking, crest raising, wing spreading, tail spreading, head turning and head swinging are some of the body postures that downy woodpeckers use to communicate. (Jackson and Ouellet, 2002)
Downy woodpeckers are omnivorous. Their primary foods include insects and other arthropods, fruits, seeds, sap and some cambium tissue. Beetles, weevils, ants, bugs, plant lice and caterpillars are among the insects eaten. They also consume scale insects and spiders. Downy woodpeckers will also eat suet from backyard feeders.
Downy woodpeckers glean insects from the surfaces of trees, shrubs and large weeds, probe into crevices and excavate shallow holes into wood to find food. Males and females within a population often differ in their foraging habits. For example, in one study in Illinois, males spent more time excavating than females, and females probed bark surfaces more than males.
Downy woodpeckers drink water by scooping it up with their bill. They drink from water that collects on horizontal limb surfaces, in epiphytes, puddles, streams, ponds and bird baths. (Jackson and Ouellet, 2002)
Adult downy woodpeckers are preyed upon by several species of birds of prey. To hide themselves from predators, downy woodpeckers flatten themselves against the surface of the tree bark and remain motionless. Downy woodpeckers may also dodge a hawk by darting behind a tree branch, or winding their way around the branch to avoid the hawk. In urban areas, downy woodpecker predators include rats and domestic cats. Eggs and nestlings are vulnerable to climbing predators such as snakes and squirrels, as well as other woodpeckers, including red-bellied woodpeckers and hairy woodpeckers. By nesting in cavities, downy woodpeckers avoid predation of their eggs and young by animals that cannot get to these cavities. (Jackson and Ouellet, 2002)
Downy woodpeckers affect the populations of the insects they prey upon and the plants they eat. They also provide valuable food for their predators. They are host to several species of body parasites, including hippoboscid flies, muscid flies and blowflies.
Abandoned downy woodpecker nest cavities may be used by other cavity-nesting species.
There are no known adverse effects of downy woodpeckers on humans.
Downy woodpeckers eat wood-boring beetle larvae and other insects that humans consider to be pests. (Jackson and Ouellet, 2002)
Downy woodpecker populations seem to be stable and/or increasing in some areas. There are an estimated 13,000,000 downy woodpeckers worldwide. This species is protected under the U.S. Migratory Bird Act. (Jackson and Ouellet, 2002)
Tanya Dewey (author), Animal Diversity Web.
Kari Kirschbaum (author, editor), Animal Diversity Web.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
uses sound to communicate
living in landscapes dominated by human agriculture.
young are born in a relatively underdeveloped state; they are unable to feed or care for themselves or locomote independently for a period of time after birth/hatching. In birds, naked and helpless after hatching.
Referring to an animal that lives in trees; tree-climbing.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
animals that generate their own body heat through metabolic processes.
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
Having one mate at a time.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
This terrestrial biome includes summits of high mountains, either without vegetation or covered by low, tundra-like vegetation.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
an animal that mainly eats all kinds of things, including plants and animals
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
"many forms." A species is polymorphic if its individuals can be divided into two or more easily recognized groups, based on structure, color, or other similar characteristics. The term only applies when the distinct groups can be found in the same area; graded or clinal variation throughout the range of a species (e.g. a north-to-south decrease in size) is not polymorphism. Polymorphic characteristics may be inherited because the differences have a genetic basis, or they may be the result of environmental influences. We do not consider sexual differences (i.e. sexual dimorphism), seasonal changes (e.g. change in fur color), or age-related changes to be polymorphic. Polymorphism in a local population can be an adaptation to prevent density-dependent predation, where predators preferentially prey on the most common morph.
Referring to something living or located adjacent to a waterbody (usually, but not always, a river or stream).
breeding is confined to a particular season
remains in the same area
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
living in residential areas on the outskirts of large cities or towns.
uses touch to communicate
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
defends an area within the home range, occupied by a single animals or group of animals of the same species and held through overt defense, display, or advertisement
living in cities and large towns, landscapes dominated by human structures and activity.
uses sight to communicate
Jackson, J., H. Ouellet. 2002. Downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens). Pp. 1-32 in A Poole, F Gill, eds. The Birds of North America, Vol. 613. Philadelphia, PA: The Birds of North America, Inc.